CONTENTS OF BOOK IX
The Ninth Book of the Ecclesiastical History contains the follorning:
I. On the feigned relaxation.
ΙΙ. οn the change for the worse that ensued.
III. on the new-made idol at Αntiοch.
IV. On the petitions against us.
v. On the forged memoirs.
VI. On Those who were martvred at this time.
VII. On the document against us set up on tablets.
VIII. On the subsequent evcnts, the famine pestilence and wars.
IX. On the of of the tyrants᾿ lives, cxpressions they made use of before the end.
X. On the victory of the God-beloved Εmperors.
XI. On the final οn of the enemies οf godliness.
Ι. THE recantation of the imperial will set forth above 1 was promulgated broadcast throughout Αsia and in the neighbouring provinces. Αfter this had thus been done, Maximin, the tyrant of the Εast, a monster οf imriety if ever there was one, who had been the bitterest enemy οf piety toward the God of the universe, Was by no means pleased with what was written, and instead οf making known the letter set forth above gave verbal commands to the rulers under him to relax the war against us. For since he might not otherwise gainsay the judgement of his superiors, he put in a corner the law set forth above ; and, taking measures how it might never see the light of day in the districts under him, by an οral direction he commanded the rulers under him to relax the persecution against us. Αnd they intimated to each other in writing the terms of the οrder. Sabinus, for instance, whom they had honoured with the rank of most excellent prefect, made known the Εmperοr’s decision to the provincial governors in a latin epistle. The translation of the same runs as follows :
“With a most eamest and devoted Ζeal the DirivInity οf our most divine masters, the Εmperors, has for a long time determined to lead all men’s [*](1 viii. 17.)
whereupon the rulers οf the provinces, having concluded that the purport οf what had been written [*](1 If the Greek here is a correct translation οf the Latin original, the words “that letter” must refer to some previous document ordering the persecution of Chffitians.)
II. This the tyrant could no longer endure, hater as he was of that which is good, and plotter against every virtuous man (he was the ruler, as we said, of the eastern parts) ; nor did he suffer matters thus to be carried on for six entire months. Sumerous, therefore, were his derivlees to overturn the peaee : at first he attempted on some pretext to shut us out from assembling in the cemeteries, 2 then through the medium of certain evil men he sent embassies to himself against us, having urged the citizens of Antioch to ask that they might obtain from him, as a very great boon, that he should in no wise permit any οf the Christians to inhabit their land, and to contrive that others should make the same suggestion. The originator of all this sprang up at Antioch itself in the person of Theotecnus, a clever cheat and an evil man, and quite unlike his name. 3 Ηe was accounted to hold the post of curator 4 in the city.
III. This man, then, many times took the field against us ; and, having been at pains by every method to hunt our people out of hiding-plaeeS as if they were unholy thieves, having employed every [*](1 1. 1. 2 Cf. vii. 11. 10, note. 3 Theotecnus means Child οf God. 4 The chief finance officer οf a municipality.)
IV. This man was the first to act thus of set purpose, and all the other offieials who lived in the cities under the same rule hastened to make a like decision, the provincial governors having seen at a glance that it was pleasing to the Emperor, and having suggested to their subjects to do the very same thing. Αnd when the tyrant had given a most willing assent to their petitions 2 by a reseript, onee more the persecution against us was rekindled.
Marimin himself appointed as priests of the images in each city and, moreover, as high priests, those who were especially distinguished in the public services and had made their mark in the entire course thereof. These persons brought great zeal to bear on the worship of the gods whom they served. Certainly, the outlandish superstition of the ruler was inducing, in a word, all under him, both governors and governed, [*](1 Eusebius here borrows some phrases from Dion. Αlex. (vii. 10. 4 above). 2 We have thus translated ψηφίσματα (“decisions”) and wherever it occurs in this book, inasmuch as these “decisions ” were “ petitions” )
V. Having forged, to be sure, Memoirs of Pilate and our Saviour, full of every kind of blasphemy against Christ, with the approval of their chief they sent them round to every part οf his dominions, with edicts that they should be exhibited openly for everyone to see in every plaee, both town country, and that the primary teachers should give them to the children, instead οf lessons, for study and committal to memory.
While this was thus being carried οut, another person, a commander, whom the Romans style dux, 1 caused certain infamous women to be abducted from the market-place at Damascus in Phoenicia, and, by continually threatening them with the infliction of tortures, compelled them to state in writing that they were once actually Christians, and privy to their unhallowed deeds, and that the Christians practised in the very churches lewdness and everything else that he wished these women to say in defamation of our faith. Ηe also made a memorandum of their words and communicated it to the Emperor, and moreover at his command published this docmnent also in every place and city.
VI. But not long afterwards he, that is to say, the commander, died by his own hand, and thus paid the penalty for his wickedness.
But as for us, banishments and severe persecutions were again renewed, and the rulers in every province
Of these, three in Emesa, a city of Phoenicia, were consigned to wild beasts as food, having declared themselves Christians. Among them was a bishop, Silvanus, exceedingly advanced in age, who had exercised his ministry for forty entire years.
Αt the same time Ρeter also, who presided with the greatest distinction over the communities at Alexandria—a truly divine example of a bishop on account of his virtuous life and his earnest study of the holy Scriptures—was seized for no reason at all quite unexpectedly ; and then immediately and unaccountably beheaded, as if by the command of Maximin. Αnd along with him many others οf the Egyptian bishops endured the same penalty.
Lucian, a most excellent man in every respect, οf temperate life and well versed in sacred learning, a presbyter of the community at Antioch, was brought to the city or Nicomedia, where the Emperor was then staying ; and, having made his defence before the ruler on behalf οf the doctrine which he professed, he was committed to prison and put to death.
so mightily, indeed, did that hater of the good, Maximin, contrive against us in a short space, that this persecution which he had stirred up seemed to us much more severe than the former one.
VII. In fact, in the midst of the cities—a thing that never happened before—petitions presented us by cities, and rescripts containing imperial ordinances
Αt this point I think it necessary to insert this same doeument of Maximin that was set up on tablets, so as to make manifest at once the boastful, overweening arrogance of this hater of God, and the divine Justice that followed close upon his heels with its sleepless hatred of the evil in wicked men. Ιt was this which smote him ; and not long afterwards he reversed his policy with regard to us, and made a decree by laws in writing.
Copy of a Translation of the Rescript of Maximin in answer to Petitions against us, taken from the Tablet at Tyre.
“ Νow at length, the feeble boldness of the human mind has shaken off and dispersed all blinding mists of error, that error which hitherto was attacking the senses of men not so much wicked as wretched, and was wrapping them in the baneful darkness of ignorance; and it has been enabled to recognize that it is governed and established by the benevolent providence of the immortal gods. Ιt passes belief to say how grateful, how exceeding pleasant and agreeable, it has proved to us that you have given a very great proof of your godly disposition ; since even before this none could be ignorant what regard and piety you were displaying towards the immortal gods, in
After other remarks he adds: “Let them behold in the broad plains the crops already ripe with waving ears of corn, the meadows, thanks to opportune rains, brilliant with plants and flowers, and the weather that has been granted us temperate and very mild; further, let all rejoice since through our piety, through the sacrifices and veneration we have rendered, the most powerful and intractable air has been propitiated, and Ιet them take pleasure in that they therefore enjoy the most serene peace securely and in quiet. Αnd let as many as have been wholly rescued from that blind folly and error and returned to a right and goodly frame of mind rejoice indeed the [*](1 The text οf this clause is hopelessly corrupt. )
“Αnd that you may know how pleasing this your request has been to us, and how fully disposed to benevolence our soul is, of its own accord apart from petitioins and entreaties: we permit your Devotedness to ask whatsoever bounty you wish, return for this your godly intent. Αnd now let it be your resolve so to do and receive. For you will obtain your bounty without delay, the granting of which to your city will furnish a testimony for evermore of our godly piety towards the immortal gods, and a proof to your sons and descendants that you have met with the due meed οf reward from our benevolence on account of these your principles of conduct."
This was emblazoned against us in every province, excluding every ray οf hope from our condition, at least as far as human help is concerned; so that, in accordance with the divine oracle itself, if possible
VIII. The customary rains, indeed, and showers οf the then prevailing winter season were withholding their usual downpour upon the earth, and we were visited with an unexpected famine, and on top of this a plague and an outbreak οf another kind of disease. This later was an ulcer, which on account of its fiery character was called an anthrax. 2 Spreading as it did οver the entire body it used to endanger greatly its victims ; but it was the eyes that it marked οut for special attack, and so it was the means of blinding numbers οf men as well as women and children.
In addition to this, the tyrant had the further trouble οf the war against the Armenians, men who from ancient times had been friends and allies of the Romans; but as they were Christians and exceedingly eamest in their piety towards the Deity, this hater of God, by attempting to compel them to sacrifice to idols and demons, made of them foes instead οf friends, and enemies instead οf allies.
The fact that all these things came together all at οnce, at οne and the same time, served to refute utterly the tyrant's insolent boasting against the Deity ; for he used to affirm insolently that, on [*](precious stone of a dark red colour, and hence is also used οf a malignant ulcer of similar appearance.)
Such were the wages received for the proud boasting of Maximin and for the petitions presented by the cities against us; while the proofs of Christians' zeal and piety in every respect were manifest to all the heathen. For example, they alone in such an evil state of affairs gave practical evidence of their sympathy and humanity: all day long some of them would diligently persevere in performing the last offices for the dying and burying them (for there were countless numbers, and no one to look after them); while others would gather together in a single assemblage the multitude of those who all throughout the city were wasted with the famine, and distribute bread to them all, so that their action was on all men's lips, and they glorified the God of the Christians, and, convinced by the deeds themselves, acknowledged that they ere truly pious and God-fearing.
Αfter these things were thus accomplished, God, he great and heavenly Champion of the Christians, hen Ηe had displayed Ηis threatening and wrath gainst all men by the aforesaid means, in return for heir exceeding great attacks against us, once again estored to us the bright and kindly radianee of His rovidential care for us. Most marvellously, as in thick darkness, Ηe caused the light of peace to hine upon us from Himself, and made it manifest o all that God Himself had been watching over our ffairs continually, at times scourging and in due eason correcting Ηis people by means of misfortunes, nd again on the other hand after sufficient chastisement
ΙX. Thus in truth Constantine, who, as aforesaid,1 was Emperor and sprung from an Emperor, pious and sprung from a most pious and in every respect most prudent father, and Licinius, who ranked next to him—both honoured for their and piety—were stirred up by the King of God of the universe and Saviour, two men beloved of God, against the two most impious tyrants; and when war was formally engaged, God proved their ally 2 in the most wonderful manner, and Maxentius fell at Rome at the hands of Constantine; while he 3 of the Εast did not long survive him, for he too perished by a most disgraceful death at the hands of Licinius, 4 who had not yet become mad. 4
But to resume. Constantine, the superior of the Emperors in rank and dignity, vas the first to take pity on those subjected to tyranny at Rome; and, calling in prayer upon God who is in heaven, and His Word, even Jesus Christ the Saviour of all, as his ally, he advanced in full force, seeking to secure for the Romans their ancestral liberty. Maxentius, to be sure, put his trust rather in devices of magic than in the goodwill of his subjects, and in truth did not dare to advance even beyond the ’s gates, but with an innumerable multitude of heavy-armed soldiers and countless bodies of legionaries secured every place and district and city that had been reduced to slavery by him in the environs of Rome and in all [*](shorter text of Eusebius Σ) runs as follows : “Thus in truth Constatine . . . most prudent father, was stirred up by the . . . Saviour, aganist those most impious tyrants . . . God proved his ally. ...” 3 Maximin. 4 This clause is a Ιater addition. )
Thus verily, through the breaking of the bridge οver the river, the passage across collapsed, and down went the boats all at once, men and all, into the deep;
Αnd after this Constantine himself, and with him the emperor Licinius, 1 whose mind was not yet deranged by the madness into Which he afterwards fell, 1 having propitiated God as the Αuthor of all their good fortune, both with one will and purpose drew up a most perfect law2 in the fullest terms on behalf οf the Christans 3; and to Maximin, who was still ruler of the provinces of the East and playing at being their friend, they sent on an account of the marvellous things that God had done for them, as well as of their victory over the tyrant, and the law itself. Αnd he, tyrant that he was, was greatly troubled at the intelligence; but, not wishing to seem to yield to others, nor yet to suppress the command through fear of those who had enjoined it, as if of his own motion he penned perforce this first letter on behalf of the Christians to the governors under him; in which he belies himself, and feigns that he had done things he never had.
Copy of a Translation of the Epistle of the Tyrant
“Jovius Μaximinus Augustus to Sabinus. I am persuaded that it is manifest both to thy Firmness and to all men that our masters Diocletian and Maximian, our fathers, when they perceived that [*](1 This clause is a later addition. 2 The so-called Edict of Milan: see X. 5. 1-14. 3 January 313.)
“ Therefore, although special letters have been written to thy Devotedness before this time, and likewise it has been laid down by ordinances that no harsh measures should be adopted against provincials who have a mind to persevere in such a custom, but that men should deal with them in a long-suffering and adaptable spirti : nevertheless that they may not suffer insults or extortions at the hands of the beneficiarii 3 or any others whatsoever, Ι think it right by this letter also to put thy Firmness in mind that thou shouldest cause our provincials to recognize the attention they owe to the gods rather by persuasive words and exhortations. Wherefore if any should make it his resolve that the worship of the gods should be recognized, it is fitting to welcome sueh persons; but if some desire to follow their own worship, thou shouldest leave it in their own power. [*](1 δι’ οὕς : probably representing per quos in the original. 2 Omitting οὖν, as suggested by Schwartz. 3 This title was given to mibtary officers οf a high rank In this passage it seems to mean officers in the entourage of a provincial governor. )
Since he issued these commands under the compulsion of necessity and not of his own free will, no one any longer regarded him as truthful or even trustworthy, because after a similar concession he had already on a former occasion showed himself to be changeable and false of disposition. Νone of our people therefore dared to convene an assembly or to present himself in public, beeause the letter did not allow him even this. This alone it laid down, that we should be kept from harsh treatment, but it gave no orders about holding meetings or erecting chureh-buildings or practising any of our customary acts. Αnd yet the adnocates of peace and piety, [Constantine had Licinius], had written to him to allow this, and had conceded it to all their subjects by means of edicts and laws. In truth, this monster of iniquity had resolved not to give in as regards this matter ; until he was smitten by the divine Justice, and at the last against his will forced to do so.
X. The following were the circumstance that hemmed him in. Ηe was unable to carry on the vast government with which he had been undeservedly entrusted ; but, lacking a prudent and
But when he joined battle, he found himself bereft of divine Providence, for, by the direction of Ηim who is the one and only God of all, the victory was given to Licinius who was then ruling. First of all, the armed soldiers in whom he had trusted were destroyed ; and when his bodyguard had left him defenceless and wholly deserted, and had gone over to him who was ruling,1 the wretched man himself with all speed of the imperial insignia that ill became him, and in a cowardly, base and unmanly way quietly slipt into the crowd. Then he ran about here and there, hiding himself in the helds and villages ; and for all his courting of safety he escaped with difficulty the hands of his enemies, his deeds themselves proclaiming how very trustworthy and true are the divine oracles, in which it has been said :
Νow the law issued by him was as follows :
Copy of a Translation of the Ordinance of the Tyrant οn behalf of the Christians, made from the Latin tongue into the Greek.
“ The Emperor Caesar Gaius Valerius Maximinus Germanicus, Sarmaticus, Ρius Felix Invictus Augustus. We beheve that no one is ignorant, nay that every man who has recourse to the facts knows and is conscious that it is manifest, that in every way we take unceasing thought for the good of our provincials, and desire to grant them such things as are best calculated to secure the advantage of all, and
“ That, therefore, for the future all suspicion or doubt arising from fear may be removed, we have decreed that this ordinance be published, so that it may be plain to all that those who desire to follow
These are the words of the tyrant that came less than a whole year after the ordinances against the Christians, set up by him on tablets ; and he who a short while previously looked upon us as impious and godless and the pests of society, so that we were not pennirted to dwen in, I will not say, a city, but even a spot in the counrty or a desert — this same person drew up ordinances and legislation on behalf οf the Christians ; and those who shortly before were being destroyed by fire and sword and given to wild beasts and birds for food before his eyes, and were enduring every kind of chastisement and punishment and loss of life in the most pitiable manner, as if they were godless and wicked, these he now allows both to observe their fonn worship and to build churches ; and the tyrant himself confesses that they possess certain rights !
Αnd when he had made these confessions, as if meeting with some kind of reward on this very account—that is, suffering less, to be sure, than behoved him to suffer—he was smitten all at once a stroke of God, and perished in the second οf the war. But the circumstances of his death were not such as fall to the lot of generah on a campaign, who time after time contend bravely on behalf of virtue and friends, and with a good courage meet a glorious end in battle ; but he suffered his due punishment like an impious enemy of God, skulking at home while his army was still stationed in battlearray on the neld. Αll at once he was smitten by a stroke of God over his whole body, with the result that he fell prone under the onslaught of terrible pains and agonies; he was wasted by hunger, and his flesh entirely consumed by an invisible, divinelysent fire; the form which his body once possessed wasted away and there and there remained only a form οf dry bones, like some phantom shape long since reduced to a skeleton, so that those present could not but think that his body become the tomb of his soul, which had been buried in what was now a corpse and completely wasted away. Αnd as the heat consumed him still more foerce;u in the very depths οf his marrow, his eyes projected, and falling from their sockets 1 left him blind. Yet he still breathed in this condition, and making confession to the Lord invoked death. So with his last breath he acknowledged that he suffered thus justly because of his violence against Christ ; and then gave up the ghost.[*](1 In later Greek λῆξις sometimes means ‘place,’ ‘position’ ; Chrysostom (Hom. lvi. in Job. § 2) uses the word, as Eusebius does here, of he place occupied by the eye. )
XI. when Maximin was thus removed — he who as the only οne left οf the enemies of godliness, d showed himself the worst of al — by the grace of Almightly God the renewal of the churches from the foundation was set on foot, and the word of Christ received a due increase upon its fonner freedom, and was clearly heard to the glory of the God of the universe; ; while the impiety οf the enemies of godlness was covered with the most abject shame and dishonour. For Maximin himself was the first to be proclaimed by the rulers as a common enemy οf all, and posted in public edicts on tablets as a most impious, most hateful and God-hating tyrant. As to the portraits which were set up in every city to his honour and that of his children, some were hurled from a height to the ground and smashed to pieces, others had their faces blackened over with darkcoloured paint and so rendered useless ; the statues likewise, as many as had been set up in his honour, were cast down and broken in the same manner, and lay as an object of merriment and sport to those who wished to insult or abuse them.
Next, all the honours of the other enemies of godliness also were taken away, and all who were οf the arty of Maximin were slain, especially those in high government positions who had been honoured by him, and who indulged in violent abuse against our doctrine in order to fawn upon him. such was Peucetius, a man whom he honoured and respected above all, the truest of his friends, consul a second and a third time, and appointed by him general finance minister; such likewise was Culeianus, who had gone through every grade of offiee in the government, the same person who gloried in the murder
So it was that Theotecnus also was summoned by Justice, who in no wise consigned to oblivion what he did against the Christians. For after he had set up the idol 1 at Antioch, he seemed to be prospering, and had actually been deemed worthy of a governorship by Maximin; but when Licinius came to the city οf the Antiochenes, he made a search for charlatans, and plied with tortures the the prophets and priests of the new-made idol, to find out by what contrivance they were practising this deceit. Αnd when the infliction of the tortures made concealment impossible for them, and they revealed that the whole mystery was a deceit manufactured by the art of Theotecnus, he inflicted a just punishment upon them all, putting to death, arter a long series οf tortures, first neotecnus himself, and then also the partners in his charlatanry.
To all these were added the sons οf Maximin, whom he had already caused to share the imperial dignity and to be set up in paintings and pictures.2 Αnd those who formerly boasted kinship with the tyrant and were moved by pride to lord it οver all men underwent the same sufferings, accompanied by the most abject disgrace, as those mentioned above; for they received not correction, nor did they know or understand the exhortatlon in the sacred books which says : “ Ρut not your trust ln princes, in the sons of men, in whom there is no help His breath shall go forth and he shall return to his [*](1 See c. 3. 2 Cf. § 2 above. )
CONTENTS OF BOOK X
The Τenth Book of the Ecclesiastical History contains the following:
I. On the peace vouchsafed to us from God.
II. On the restoration of the churches.
III. On the dedications in every place.
IV Panegyric οn the joyful condiition of affairs.
V. Copies of imperial laws having reference to the Christians.
VI. Οn the exemption from public service granted to the clerics.
VII. On the subsequent wiekedness οf Lieinius and his tragic end.
VIII. On the victory Constantine and the blessings which he was the means of procuring for the subjects of the Roman Empire.
I. Thanks be to God, the Almighty and King of the universe, for all things; and abundant thanks be also the Saviour and Redeemer of our souls, Jesus Christ, through whom we pray continually that peace from troubles without and troubles in the heart may be preserved for us stedfast and unidsturbed.
Αnd having now added, while we pray, the tenth tome also of the Ecclesiastical History to those which preceded it, we shall dedicate this tome to thee, my οst holy Paulinus, 1 invoking thee as the seal of the whole work; and fitly in a perfect number we shall here place the perfect and panegyrical discourse on the restoration of the churches, in obediencce to the divine Spirit who thus exhorts us: “O sing unto the Lord a new song; for he hath done marvellous things: His right hand, and His holy arm, hath wrought salvation for him. The Lord hath made wn his salvation: His righteousness hath Ηe revealed in the sight of the heathen.
Αnd verily, in accordance with the oracle, which thus bids us, let us now cry aloud the new song, since, after those terrible and gloomy spectacle and narratives, we were accounted worthy now to behold [*](1 Bishop οf Tyre, and subsequently οf his nativc city, Antioch. Eusebius had a great admiration for him, and dedicated to him not only this book but also his Onomasticon. )
The whole race of God's enemies had verily been moved even as we have stated, 1 and in a moment lotted out of men's sight; so that once more a divine ying hath fulfilment, that which says: “I have seen e wicked in great power, and lifted up like the cedars f Leganon. Αnd I passed by, and, lo, he was not: d I sought his place, and it was not ” nd how henceforth a day bright and radiant with ys of heavenly light, overshadowed by never a ud, shone down upon the churches of Christ ughout the whole world ; nor were even those utisde οur society 2 grudged, if not the equal enjoyment [*](sense it is used here. But its application to the Christian iety is remarkable. )
II. So the whole human race was freed from the oppression οf the tyrants. Αnd, delivered from his former ills, each one after his own fashion acknowledged as the only true God Him who was the Champion of the pious. But we especially, who had fixed οur hopes upon the Christ of God, had gladness kable, and a divine joy blossomed in the hearts of us as we beheld every place, which a short time re had been laid in ruins by the tyrants' deeds, now reviving as if after a long and deadly destruction, and temples rising once more from their foundations to a boundless height, and receiving in far greater measure the magnificence of those that formerly had been destroyed.
Yea, and Emperors, the most exalted, by successive enacbnents on bahalf of the Christians, confirmed still further and more widely God's bounty towards us; and bishops constantly received even personal letters from the Emperor, and honours and gifts οf money. It may not be unfitting at the proper place in this work, as on a sacred monument, to insert in this book the text of these documents, translated from Latin into Greek, so that they may also be preserved in remembrance by all those who come after us.
III. After this there was brought about that spectacle for which we all prayed and longed: festivals of dedication in the cities and consecrations οf the newly-built houses of prayer, assemblages of bishops, comings together of those from far off foreign lands, kindly acts on the part of laity towards laity, union between the members οf Crist's body
Moreover every one of the Church's rulers that were present, accorffing to his ability, delivered panegyrical orations, inspiring the assembly.
IV. Αnd a certain one of moderate parts 1 advanced into the midst, having composed a discourse; and, in the presence of very many pastors who gave it a quiet and orderly hearing as in a chureh assembly, he delivered the following oration, addressed personally to a single bishop who was in every respect most excellent and beloved of God, by whose zeal and enthusiasm the temple in Tyre, surpassing in splendour all οthers in Phoenicia, had been erected:[*](1 Eusebius himself.)
Panegyric on the building of the churches, addressed to Paulinus, bishop of the Tyrians:
“Ο friends of God and priests who are clothed with the holy robe1 and the celestial crown of glory, the divine unction and the Ρriestly garb of the Holy Spirit; and thou, Ο youthful pride of God's holy temple, honoured indeed by God with revered wisdom, yet noted for the choiee deeds and acts of a youthful virtue that cometh to its prime, upon whom Ηe who compasseth the whole world hath bestowed the especial honour of building Ηis house upon earth, and restoring it for Christ Ηis only-begotten firstborn Word and for Christ's holy and reverend Bride-whether one should call thee a new the architeet of a divine tabernacle, or Solomon the king of a new and far goodlier Jerusalem, or even a new Zerubbabel who bestowed upon the temple of God that glory which greatly exceeded the former; and you also, ye nurslings of the sacred flock of Christ, –place of goodly words, school of sobriety, auditory of godliness grave and dear to God: Long ago, as we listened to the reading aloud of those passages of Holy Writ which told of the miraculous signs that God gave and the wondrous deebs that the Lord wrought for the serviee of men we could hymns and songs to God and say, even as we were taught: ‘We have heard with our ears, Ο God, our fathers have told us, what work thou didst in their days, in the days of old.’ But now indeed no longer by hearing or by report do we learn of the stretched out arm and the heavenly right hand of [*](priestly attire: cf. Exod. xxix. 5 τὸν χιτῶνα τὸν ποδήρη lit. “the garment reaching to the feet.” )
“Αnd may we never cease to praise aloud in these Words the Father οf the universe. But as for Him who is the second cause of our good things, Who brought men to the knowledge of God, the Teacher of true piety, the Destroyer of the wicked, the Slayer of tyrants, the Εmender οf human life, our saviour when we were in despair, even Jesus, let us honour Ηis name upon our lips; for Ηe alone, as being the οne only, all-gracious Son of an all-gracious since the Father in His love for man so ordained it, right willingly put οn the nature of us, even of those who anywhere lay low in corruption. And like some excellent physician, who, to save those who are sick, ‘though he sees the ills yet touches the foul spots, and for another's misfortunes reaps suffering for himself,’1 so Ηe by Ηimself saved the very abyss of death us who were not merely sick or oppressed by grievous sores and wounds already putrifying, but even lying among the dead; for none [*](1 Hippocrates, Περὶ φυσῶν 1.)
“Αnd when at this great grace and benefaction the envy that hateth the good, even the demon that loveth the evil, was torn asunder with wrath, so to speak, and was marshalling all his death-dealing forces against us, at first raging like a dog which gnaweth with his teeth at the stone hurled at him and venteth on the lifeless missiles hls fury agamst those who would drive him away, he ffirected his ferocious madness against the stones of the houses οf prayer and the lifeless materials of which the buildings were composed, to work (as at least he thought within himself) the ruin οf the churches; then he emitted his dread hissings and serpent-like sounds, at [*](1 Supplying ὀρῶν, as Schwartz suggests. )
“Αnd rightly so. For what king ever attained to so much virtue as to ml the ears and tongues of all mankind upon earth with his name 7. what king, when he had laid down laws so good and wise, Was powerful enough to cause them to be published from the ends of the earth and too the bounds οf the whole world in the hearing of all mankind? who abolished the barbarous and uncivilized customs of uncivilized nations by his civilized and most humane laws ? Who, when warred on by all men for whole ages, gave such proof of superhuman might as to flourish daily and remain young throughout his entire life? Who established a nation never even heard οf since time hegan, which now lieth not hidden in some obscure corner οf the earth but extendeth wherever the sun shineth? Who so defended his soldiers with the weapons of piety that their souls proved harder than adamant when they contended with their adversaries ? Which of the king exerciseth so great a sway, taketh the Reld after death, triumpheth οver enemies, and filleth every plaee and district and city, both Greek and barbarian, with votive offerings οf his royal houses and divine temples, such as the fair ornaments and offerings that we see in this temple ? Truly venerable and great are these Same things, worthy οf amazement and wonder, and in themselves clear proofs of the sovereignty of οur saviour: for even now Ηe spake, and they were made; Ηe
“But they verily, engaging like giants in battle against God, have thus brought their lives to a miserable end; while the issue of that godly enduranee on the part of her who was deserted and rekected by men was such as we have seen; so that the propheey of Isaiah ealleth aloud unto her in these words: ‘Be glad, Ο thirsty desert; let the desert rejoice and blossom as a lily; and the desert places shall blossom forth and rejoice. . . . Be strong, ye hands that
“Now these things, foretold long ago had been recorded in the sacred books in words; howbeti the deeds have come down to us no longer by hearsay, but in actual fact. This desert, this waterless plaee, this widowed and defenceless one, whose gates they cut down with axes as in a thicket of trees; whom together with hatchet and hammer they brake down; whose books also they destroyed and set ond frie the sanetuary of God; they profaned the dwelling-place of His name to the ground; whom all they which pass by the way did pluck, having before broken down her fences, whome the boar out of the wood did ravage and on whom the solitary wild beast did feed: now by the miraculous power of Christ, when Ηe willeth it, hath become as a lily. For at that time also by His command, as of a careful father, she was chastened. For whom the Lord loveth Ηe chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom Ηe receiveth. So then, after being corrected in due measure, once more again She is bidden anew to rejoice, alld she, blossoms forth as a lily and breathes upon all men of her divine, sweet odour; for, saith he, water broke out in the desert, the streams of the divine regeneration that the washing of salvation bestoweth; and that which a short time before was deert hath now become marsh-meadows, and a fountain of living water hath burst forth upon the thirsty ground; and
“Thus, then, the whole area that he enclosed was uch larger. 2 The outer enclosure he made strong [*](1 i.e. that occupied by the previous church. The iption here given (§§ 37-45) is the earliest t we possess of the stucture and furniture of a Christian )
“But verily, passing by this spectacle, he hath own οpen passages to the temple by means of nermost porches in still greater numbers, once again der the rays οf the sun placing three gates on οne de, upon the middle one of which he hath bestowed height and side that far surpasseth the two on either ide, and hath singled it out for special adornment ith bronze fastenings bound with iron and varied bossed work, making the others a bodyguard, as were, beneath it as their queen. Αnd after the e manner he hath also ordered the number of the rches for the colonnades on either side of the tire temple; and above them hath derised as well parate opening into the building to give still further ght; and for these also he hath wrought a varied ornment with delicately-carved wood.
‘‘Νow as to the royal house, 1 he hath builded it of thundant and still richer materials, eagerly desiring spare no expenses. I deem it superfluous for me to escribe here the length and breadth of the edifice, recount in full the brilliant beauty, the magnitude words can express, and the dazzling appearance οf e workmanship, yea, and the loftniness that reacheth eaven, and the costly cedars of Lebanon that are hced above; the mention of which even the divine acle doth not pass over in silence, sayinn: ‘The ees of the Lord shall be glad, even the cedars οf banon which he hath planted.’
“Why need I now speak more partieularly οf the perfect widom and art with which the building hath been ordered, and the surpassing beauty οf every part, when the witness of the eyes leaveth no plaee for the instruction that cometh through the ears? [*](1 Or, as we should say, “basilica.”)
“Νor did even the pavement, as one might suppose, escape his care. This also, for example, he hath made exceeding brilliant with every kind of fair marble; and then, finally, passing on outside the temple as well, he hath construeted chambers and building on either side, very large, the which he hath skilfully μnited together to the sides ofthe royal house,1 and These with the openings into the central building. These also were wrought by our most peaceful solomon, who builded the temple of God, for those who still have need of cleansing and sprinkling with water and the Ηoly spirit, insomuch that the aforesaid said prophecy 2 is no longer a word only, but is become a fact. For the latter glory of this house hath become, and in truth even now is, greater than the fonner.
“For it was meet and right that, as her shepherd and Lord had suffered οnce for all death on her behalf, and after the Ρassion had changed the foul body with which Ηe had clothed Ηinself for her sake into His splendid and glOrious body, and brought the very flesh that was dissoleved from corruption into incor- [*](2 § 36.)
“With these words, then, she danceth. But with hat words the Bridegroom also, even the heavenly ord, Jesus Christ Ηimself, answereth her, hear the rd as Ηe saith: ‘Fear not for that thou hast been ut to shame; neither dread for that thou hast en put to reproach: for thou shalt forget thy everything shame, and the reproach of thy widowhood
“These things Isaiah prophesied, these things had οf οld been recorded concerning us in sacred books; but it was neeessary that somehow we should come to learn their truthfulness at some time by facts. Moreover, since the Brdegroom, even the Word, thus addresseth Ηis Bride, the sacred and Ηοly church, fittingly did this paranymph 1 streteh out your hands in the common prayers of you all, and awake and raise up her who was desolate, who lay like a corpse, οf whom men despaired, by the will of God the universal King and the manifestation οf the power οf Jesus Christ; and having raised he restored her to be such as he learnt from the record of the sacred oracles.
“Α mightly wonder truly is this, and surpassing all amazement, especially in the eyes of such as take heed only to the appearance of outward things. But more wonderful than wonders are the archetypes, the rational prototypes of these things, and their divine models, 2 I mean the renewal οf the God-given, spirtual edince in our souls. This edifice the Son of God Himself created in Ηis own image, and everywhere and in all things hath bestowed upon it the divine likeness, an incorruptible nature, an essence incorporeal, spiritual, a stranger to all earthly matter and endowed with intelligence of its οwn; once for all at the first Ηe fonned it into being from that which was not, and hath made it a holy bride and an allsacred temple for Himself and the Father. Αnd this [*](church is more wonderful is the restoration of the soul, insamuch as the spriitual, is the archetype or prototype of the material. )
“But when through the envy and jealousy οf demon which loveth evil she became of her own free choice a lover of that which is sensual and evil, and the Deity departed from her, leaving her bereft οf a protector, she fell an easy capture and prey to the snares of those who long had enried her; and, laid low by the engines and machines of her invisible enemies and spiritual foes, she fell a tremendous fall, so that not even one stone upon another of her virtue remained standing in her; nay, she lay her full length upon the ground, absolutely dead, altogether deprived of her inborn thoughts concerning God. Yea, verily, as she lay fallen there, she who was made in the image of God, it was not that boar οut of the wood which we can see that ravaged her, but some death-dealing demon and spiritual wild beasts, who also have inflamed her with their passions as with fiery darts of their οwn wickedness, and have set the truly divine sanctuary of God on fire, and have profaned the dwelling-place of Ηis name to the ground; then they buried the hapless οne in a great heap οf earth, and brought her to a state bereft of all hope of salvation.
“But her Guardian, the Word, the divinely-bright and saving one, when she had paid the just penalty for her sins, once more again rertored her, hearkening to the living-kindness οf an all-gracious Father.
“Building verily in righteousness, 1 he duly divided the whole people according to their several abilities; with some he fenced the outer enclosure and this alone, surrounding it with a wall of unerring faith (and this was the great multitude of the people who were unable to support a mightier structure); to others he entrusted the entrances to the house, setting them to haunt the doors and guide the steps of those entering, wherefore they have not unnaturally been reckoned as gateways of the temple; he supported with the first outer pillars that are about the quadrangular courtyard, bringing them to their first acquaintance with the letter of the four Gospels. Others he joineth closely to the royal house on either side, still indeed under instruction and in the stage of progressing and advancing, yet not far off nor greatly separated from the faithful who possess the divine vision of that which is innermost. Taking from the number of these last the pure souls that have been cleansed like gold by the divine washing, he then supporteth some of them with pillars much greater than the outermost, from the innermost mystic teachings of the Scriptures, while others he illumineth with apertures towards the light. The whole temple he adorneth with a single, mighty gateway, even the praise of the οne and only God, the universal King; and on either side of the Father's sovereign power he provideth the secondary beams of the light of Christ and the Ηoly Spirit. Αs to the rest, throughout the whole house he showeth in an abundant and much varied manner the clearness and splendour of the truth that is in each one, in that everywhere and from every source he hath included the living and firmly set and
“Νow there are also in this fane thrones and countless benches and seats, as manv as are the souls on which the gifts of the divine Spirit find their restingplace; such as long ago appeared to the sacred Apostles and those that were with them, to whom there were manifested tongues parting asunder, like as of fire ; and it sat upon each one of them. But while in the ruler of all, as is right, the entire Christ hath taken Ηis seat, in those who have the second place after him [this bounty] is proportioned to each one's capacity, by gifts of the power of Christ and of the Ηoly Ghost. Αnd the souls of some might be the seats even of angels, of of those to whom the instruction and guarding of each several person hath been committed. But as to the reverend, mighty and unique altar, what might it be save the spotless holy of holies of the common priest of all ? 1 Standing beside it on the right hand the great High Ρriest of the universe, even Jesus, the only-begotten of receiveth with joyful countenance and uptunrned hands the sweet-smelling incense from all, and bloodless and immaterial sacrifices offered in prayer, and sendeth them on their way to the heavenly Father and God of the universe; Whom He Himself first adoreth and alone rendereth to His Father the honour that is due; after which Ηe also beseecheth [*](typifies the spiritual sanctuary (i.e. the soul) of Jesus Christ.)
“Such is the great temple which the Word, the great Creator of the universe, hath builded throughout the whole world beneath the sun, forming again this spiritual image upon earth of those vaults beyond the vaults of heaven; so that by the whole creation and by the rational, living creatures upon earth His Father might be honoured and revered. But as for the region above the heavens and the models there of things on this earth, and the Jerusalem that is above, as it is called, and the mount Ζion the heavenly mount, and the supramundane city of the living God, in which innumerable hosts of angels in general assembly and the church οf the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven honour their Maker and the Sonereign of the universe, proclaiming Ηis praises in unutterable words of which we cannot conceive: these no mortal man can worthily hymn, for in truth eye saw not, and ear heard not, nor did there enter into the heart of man those same things which God prepared for them that love Ηim. Of these things now in part deemed worthy, let us all together, men with women and children, small and great, with one spirit and one soul, never cease to praise and acclaim Him who is the Αuthor of so great blessings to us ; who is very merciful to all our iniquities, who healeth all our diseases, who redeemeth our life from destruction, who crowneth us with mercy and pities, who satisfieth our desire with good things; for Ηe hath not dealt with us after our sins, nor rewarded us after
‘‘Let us rekindle the memories οf these things both now and for all time hereafter; yea, and let us keep our minds night and day, through every and, one might say, in every breath, the Αuthor the present assembly, and this happy and most lorious day, even the Ruler of the assembly Himself; let us cherish and revere Him with the whole wer οf our soul; and now let us rise and beseech in loud accents, as befitteth our earnest desire, at at He would shelter and preserve us to the end in is fold, and award us that eternal peace, unbroken undisturbed, which cometh cometh from Him, in Christ esus our Saviour, through whom to Him be glory for er and ever. ”
V. But come, let us now quote also the translations made from the Latin of the imperial ordinances of nstantine and Licinus.
Copy of Imperial Ordinances translated from the Latin tongue.1
In our watchfulness in days gone by that freedom f worship should not be denied, but that each οne rding to his mind and purpose should have uthority given him to care for divine things in the [*](the people οf his pronince. It is probable that at Milan, in 313 (ix. 11.9), Constantine and Licinius drew up a norm οf ctions to governors which might be copied, with perhaps e variations in detail, and sent to the various proninces. ne redaction οf that norm was translated by Eusebius, other was transcribed by Lactantius (De Mortibus Perm 48).)
“ When I Constantine Αugustus and I Lincinius gustus had come under happy auspices to Milan, d discussed all matters that concemed the public vantage and good, among the other things that eemed to be of benefit to the many 3—or rather, first and foremost — we resolved to make sueh decrees should secure respect and reverenee for the Deity Deity ; namely, to grant both to the Christians and to all free choice of following whatever form οf worship ey pleased, to the intent that all the dirine and eavenly powers that be might be favourable to us d all those living under our authority. Therefore with sound and most upright reasoning we resolved this 4 counsel : that authority be refused to no οne homsoever to follow and choose the observanee or rm of worship that Christians use, and that authority e granted to each one to give his mind to that form f worship which he deems sritable to himself, to e intent that the Dininity 5 . . . may in all things ord us his wonted care and generosity. It was omitting to send a rescript that this is οur pleasure, in er that when those conditions had altogether been [*](3 Lat. pluribus hominibus ; the Gk. has ἐν πολλοῖς ἅπασιν luribus omnibus). 4 Omitting ἡμετέραν, with the Latin. 5 The Latin adds “ cuius religioni liberis mentibus obsequiur.” )
“Αnd this, moreover, with special regard to the istians, we resolve: That their places, at which was their former wont to assemble, coneerning ich also in the former letter dispatched to thy evotedness a definite ordinance 3 had been formerly d down, if any should appear to have bought them ther from our treasury οr from any οther source — at these they should restore to these same ristians without payment οr any demand for compensation. [*](3 Lat. certa forma. Eusebius has τύπος ἕτερος, as if he had cetera in the Latin. )
“Αnd inasmuch as these same Christians had not only those places at whieh it was their wont to assemble, but also are known to have had Other, belonging not to indiniduals among them, but to the lawful property of their corporation, that is, of the Christians, all these, under the provisions of the law set forth above, thou wilt give orders to be restored without any question whatsoever to these same Christians, that is, to their corporation and assembly; provided always, of course, a aforesaid, that those persons who restoie the same without compensation, as we have mentioned above, may look for indemnification, as far as they are concerned, from our generosity.
“In all these things thou Shouldest use all the diligence in thy power for the above-mentioned corporation of the Christians, that this our command may be fulfilled with all speed, so that in this also, through our kindness, thought may be taken for the common and publie peace. For by this method, as we have also said before, the divine [*](1 Omitting the gloss δικάζοντι. )
Copy of another Imperial Ordinance which he also made, indicating that the bounty had been granted to the Catholic Church alone.
‘‘Greeting, Anulinus, our most honoured Sir. It is the custom of οur benevolence, that we will that whatsoever appertains by right to another should not only not suffer harm, but even be restored, most honoured Anulinus. Wherefore we will that, when thou receivest this lerter, if aught of those things that belonged to the catholic Church 2 of the Christians in any city, or even in other plaees, be now in the possession either of citizens or οf any οthers: these thou shouldest cause to be restored forthwith to these same churches, inasmueh as it has been our determination that those things which these same churches possessed formerly should be restored to them as their right. Since, therefore, thy Devotedness perceives that the order of this our command is most explicit, do thy diligence that [*](2 Eusebius (see heading) took this to mean the Catholic Church as opposed to the Donatist schismatics; but this is very imrobable. The phrase refcrs to the Church in Africa as it was before the persecution and before the schism. )
Copy of an Imperial Letter, in which he commands holding of a Synod of bishops at Rome οn behalf of the union and concord of the churches.
“Constantine Augustus to Miltiades bishop of the , and to Mark. Inasmuch as documents of such a nature have been sent to me in numbers by Anulinus, the right honourable proconsul of Africa, m which it appears that Caecilian,1 the bishop of the ity οf the Carthaginians, is called to aecount οn many charges by some of his colleagues in Africa; d inasmuch as it seems to me to be a very serious tter that in those prorinces, which Dinine Pronience has chosen to entrust to my Denotedness, and where there is a great number of people, the ultitude should be found pursring the worse course f action, splitting up, as it were, and the bishops at ariance mnong themselves: it seemed good to me t Caecilian himself, with ten bishops, who seem call him to account, and such ten others as he ay deem necessary to his suit, should set sail for me, that there a hearing may be granted him in the presence of yourselves, and moreover οf Reticius d Maternus and Marinus also, your colleagues aditor, i.e. had surrendered up the Scriptures to the pagan [*](thorities. Hence they held that Caecilian's consecration as invalid; and by appointing a bishop of their own in his began what is known as the Donatist schism. )
Copy of an Imperial Letter, in which he gives orders for the holding of a second Synod for the purpose of removing all dinision among the bishops.
“Constantine Αugustus to Chrestus bishop of the Syracusans. Already on a former occasion, when some in a base and perverse manner began to create divisions with regard to the worship of the holy and heavenly Ρower and the Catholic religion, in my desire to cut short such dissensions among them, I had given orders to the effect that certain bishops should be sent from Gaul, nay further, that the opposing parties, who were contending stubbornly [*]( 2 Gk. “Sir’’; but the Lat. correctly gives the plural. The Letter, hovever. seems to have been addressed principally to Miltiades : nothing is known of Mark, who is associated with him in the opening sentence. )
VI. Copy of an Imperial Letter in which grants of money are made to the churches.
“ Constantine Augustus to Caecilian bishop of Carthage. Forasmuch as it has been our pleasure in all provinces, namely the African, the Numidian and the Mauretanian, that somewhat be contributed for expenses to certrin specified ministers of the lawful and most holy Catholic religion, I have dispatched a letter to Ursus, the most distinguished finance minister οf Africa, and have notified to him that he be careful to pay οver to thy Firmness three thousand folles.2 Do thou therefore, when thou shalt secure delivery of the aforesaid sum of money, give orders that this money be distributed among all the above-mentioned persons in accordance with the schedule [*](2 The follis was originally a bag of samll coins, but after-wards came to denote a coin itseIf, the double denarius.)