Historia Ecclesiastica

Eusebius

Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, Lake, Loeb, 1926

CONTENTS OF BOOK IX

The Ninth Book of the Ecclesiastical History contains the follorning:

I. On the feigned relaxation.

ΙΙ. οn the change for the worse that ensued.

III. on the new-made idol at Αntiοch.

IV. On the petitions against us.

v. On the forged memoirs.

VI. On Those who were martvred at this time.

VII. On the document against us set up on tablets.

VIII. On the subsequent evcnts, the famine pestilence and wars.

IX. On the of of the tyrants᾿ lives, cxpressions they made use of before the end.

X. On the victory of the God-beloved Εmperors.

XI. On the final οn of the enemies οf godliness.

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BOOK IX

Ι. THE recantation of the imperial will set forth above 1 was promulgated broadcast throughout Αsia and in the neighbouring provinces. Αfter this had thus been done, Maximin, the tyrant of the Εast, a monster οf imriety if ever there was one, who had been the bitterest enemy οf piety toward the God of the universe, Was by no means pleased with what was written, and instead οf making known the letter set forth above gave verbal commands to the rulers under him to relax the war against us. For since he might not otherwise gainsay the judgement of his superiors, he put in a corner the law set forth above ; and, taking measures how it might never see the light of day in the districts under him, by an οral direction he commanded the rulers under him to relax the persecution against us. Αnd they intimated to each other in writing the terms of the οrder. Sabinus, for instance, whom they had honoured with the rank of most excellent prefect, made known the Εmperοr’s decision to the provincial governors in a latin epistle. The translation of the same runs as follows :

“With a most eamest and devoted Ζeal the DirivInity οf our most divine masters, the Εmperors, has for a long time determined to lead all men’s [*](1 viii. 17.)

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thoughts into the holy and right path of life, so that those also who seemed to follow customs foreign to the Romans should perform the acts of worship due to the immortal gods. But the οbstinacy and most unyielding determination of some was carried to such a length, that neither could they be tumed back from their οwn purpose by just reasoning embodied in the order, nor did they fear the punishment that threatened. Since therefore it has come about that many by such conduct endanger themselves, in accordance with the noble piety that is theirs, the Divinity of our masters, the most mighty Εmperors, deeming it foreign to their divine purpose that for such a reason they should so greatly endanger these men, gave commandment through my Devotedness to write to thy Intelligence, that if any of the Christians be found following the religion of his nation, thou shouldest set him free from molestation directed ngainst him and from danger, nor shouldest thou anyone punishable οn this charge, since so long a pnssage of time has proved that they can in no wise be persuaded to to such obstinate conduct. Let it be thy Solicitude's duty, therefore, write to the curators and the duumrirs and the magistrates of the district of every city, that they may know that it is not beseeming for them to take any further notice οf that letter.”1

whereupon the rulers οf the provinces, having concluded that the purport οf what had been written [*](1 If the Greek here is a correct translation οf the Latin original, the words “that letter” must refer to some previous document ordering the persecution of Chffitians.)

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to them was a genuine expression, made known by means of letters the imperial resolve to curators, dumnvirs and rural magistrates. Αnd not only did they further these measures by writing, but also much more so by action. With a view to carrying out the imperial will, as many as they kept shut up prisons for for their confession οf the Deity they brought into the light of day and set free, releasing such of these same persons as were consigned to the mines for punishment. For this, in truth, they mistakenly conceived to be the Emperor's Αnd when these things had thus been carried into effect, as though some light shined forth all at once out of a gloomy night, one might see churches thronged in every city, and crowded assemblies, and the rites perfonned thereat in the customary manner. Αnd every single one οf the unbelieving heathen was in no small degree amazed at these happenings, marvelling at the miracle of of great a change, and extolling the Christians᾿ God as God as great and of οur οwn people, those who had faithfully and bravely contended throughout the conffict οf persecutions οnee more resumed their conhdent bearing in the sight of all ; but those whoSe faith had been ffiseased and souls stonn-tost eageriy srtove for their own heahng, beseeching and begging the strong for the right hand of safety, and supplicating God to be mereiful to them. Αnd then also the noble champions οf godliness, freed from their evil plight in the mines, returned to their own homes. Ρroudly and joyously they went through every city, full οf unspeakable speakable mirth and a boldness that cannot even be expressed in words. Tea, thronging crowds of men
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went οn their journey, praising God in the midst of thoroughfares and market-places with songs and psalms; and you might see those who shortly before had been prisoners undergoing the harshest punishment and driven from their native lands, now regaining with gay and joyful countenanees their own hearths so that even those who fonherly were thirsting for our blood, seeing the wondrous thing contrary to all expectation, rejoiced with us at what had happened.

II. This the tyrant could no longer endure, hater as he was of that which is good, and plotter against every virtuous man (he was the ruler, as we said, of the eastern parts) ; nor did he suffer matters thus to be carried on for six entire months. Sumerous, therefore, were his derivlees to overturn the peaee : at first he attempted on some pretext to shut us out from assembling in the cemeteries, 2 then through the medium of certain evil men he sent embassies to himself against us, having urged the citizens of Antioch to ask that they might obtain from him, as a very great boon, that he should in no wise permit any οf the Christians to inhabit their land, and to contrive that others should make the same suggestion. The originator of all this sprang up at Antioch itself in the person of Theotecnus, a clever cheat and an evil man, and quite unlike his name. 3 Ηe was accounted to hold the post of curator 4 in the city.

III. This man, then, many times took the field against us ; and, having been at pains by every method to hunt our people out of hiding-plaeeS as if they were unholy thieves, having employed every [*](1 1. 1. 2 Cf. vii. 11. 10, note. 3 Theotecnus means Child οf God. 4 The chief finance officer οf a municipality.)

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device to slander and accuSe uS, having been the cause even of death to countless numbers, he ended by erecting a statue of Zeus the Befriender with certain juggleries and soreeries, and having devised unhallowed rites for it and ill-omened initiations abominable purifications, 1 he exhibited his wonderworking by what oraeles he pleased, even in the Emperor's presence. Αnd moreover this fellow, in order to flatter and please him who was ruling, stirred up the demon against the Christians, and said that the god, forsooth, had given orders that the Christians should be driven away beyond the borderS of the city and country round about, since they were his enemies.

IV. This man was the first to act thus of set purpose, and all the other offieials who lived in the cities under the same rule hastened to make a like decision, the provincial governors having seen at a glance that it was pleasing to the Emperor, and having suggested to their subjects to do the very same thing. Αnd when the tyrant had given a most willing assent to their petitions 2 by a reseript, onee more the persecution against us was rekindled.

Marimin himself appointed as priests of the images in each city and, moreover, as high priests, those who were especially distinguished in the public services and had made their mark in the entire course thereof. These persons brought great zeal to bear on the worship of the gods whom they served. Certainly, the outlandish superstition of the ruler was inducing, in a word, all under him, both governors and governed, [*](1 Eusebius here borrows some phrases from Dion. Αlex. (vii. 10. 4 above). 2 We have thus translated ψηφίσματα (“decisions”) and wherever it occurs in this book, inasmuch as these “decisions ” were “ petitions” )

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to do everything against us in order to secure his favour ; in return for the benents which they thought to secure from him, they bestowed upon him this greatest of boons, namely, to thirst for our blood and to display some more novel tokens of malice toward us.

V. Having forged, to be sure, Memoirs of Pilate and our Saviour, full of every kind of blasphemy against Christ, with the approval of their chief they sent them round to every part οf his dominions, with edicts that they should be exhibited openly for everyone to see in every plaee, both town country, and that the primary teachers should give them to the children, instead οf lessons, for study and committal to memory.

While this was thus being carried οut, another person, a commander, whom the Romans style dux, 1 caused certain infamous women to be abducted from the market-place at Damascus in Phoenicia, and, by continually threatening them with the infliction of tortures, compelled them to state in writing that they were once actually Christians, and privy to their unhallowed deeds, and that the Christians practised in the very churches lewdness and everything else that he wished these women to say in defamation of our faith. Ηe also made a memorandum of their words and communicated it to the Emperor, and moreover at his command published this docmnent also in every place and city.

VI. But not long afterwards he, that is to say, the commander, died by his own hand, and thus paid the penalty for his wickedness.

But as for us, banishments and severe persecutions were again renewed, and the rulers in every province

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once more rose up cruelly against us, with the result that some of those eminent in the divine Word were taken, and received the sentence of death without mercy.

Of these, three in Emesa, a city of Phoenicia, were consigned to wild beasts as food, having declared themselves Christians. Among them was a bishop, Silvanus, exceedingly advanced in age, who had exercised his ministry for forty entire years.

Αt the same time Ρeter also, who presided with the greatest distinction over the communities at Alexandria—a truly divine example of a bishop on account of his virtuous life and his earnest study of the holy Scriptures—was seized for no reason at all quite unexpectedly ; and then immediately and unaccountably beheaded, as if by the command of Maximin. Αnd along with him many others οf the Egyptian bishops endured the same penalty.

Lucian, a most excellent man in every respect, οf temperate life and well versed in sacred learning, a presbyter of the community at Antioch, was brought to the city or Nicomedia, where the Emperor was then staying ; and, having made his defence before the ruler on behalf οf the doctrine which he professed, he was committed to prison and put to death.

so mightily, indeed, did that hater of the good, Maximin, contrive against us in a short space, that this persecution which he had stirred up seemed to us much more severe than the former one.

VII. In fact, in the midst of the cities—a thing that never happened before—petitions presented us by cities, and rescripts containing imperial ordinances

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in reply, were set up, engraved on brazen tablets ; while the children in the schools had every day on their lips the names of Jesus and Pilate and the Memoirs forged to insult us.

Αt this point I think it necessary to insert this same doeument of Maximin that was set up on tablets, so as to make manifest at once the boastful, overweening arrogance of this hater of God, and the divine Justice that followed close upon his heels with its sleepless hatred of the evil in wicked men. Ιt was this which smote him ; and not long afterwards he reversed his policy with regard to us, and made a decree by laws in writing.

Copy of a Translation of the Rescript of Maximin in answer to Petitions against us, taken from the Tablet at Tyre.

“ Νow at length, the feeble boldness of the human mind has shaken off and dispersed all blinding mists of error, that error which hitherto was attacking the senses of men not so much wicked as wretched, and was wrapping them in the baneful darkness of ignorance; and it has been enabled to recognize that it is governed and established by the benevolent providence of the immortal gods. Ιt passes belief to say how grateful, how exceeding pleasant and agreeable, it has proved to us that you have given a very great proof of your godly disposition ; since even before this none could be ignorant what regard and piety you were displaying towards the immortal gods, in

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whom is manifested a faith, not of bare and empty words, but constant and admirable in its noble deeds. Wherefore your city might worthily be called a temple and —place οf the immortal gods. Certainly, by many signs it appears that it flourishes bccause there the immortal gods sojourn. Behold therefore, your city put away all thought for its own private advantage and neglected former requests for its own affairs, when once again it perceived that the followers οf that accursed folly were beginning to spread, as a neglected and smouldering pyre which, when its fires are rekindled into flame, forms οnce more a mighty conflagration. Then immediately and without any delay it had recourse to our piety, as to a metropolis of all religious feeling, requesting some healing and help. It is evident that the gods have placed in your heart this saving thought οn account οf your frialth and godly fear. Accordingly it was he, the most exalted and mighty, even Zeus, he who presides οver your far-famed city, he who protects your ancestral gods and women and children and hearth and home from all destruction, who inspired your hearts with this saving purpose ; it was he who plainly showed how excellent and splendid and saving a thing it is to draw night to the worship and sacred rites οf the immortal gods with due reverence. For who can be found so senseless or bereft of all intelligence as not to perceive that it is by the benevolent care of the gods that the earth does not refuse the seeds committed to it, and thus disappoint the hus- [*](3 This word is evidently corrupt. Schwartz suggests ἄφθορον. )
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bandmen οf their hope with vain expectation? Or, again, that the spectre of unholy war does not plant itself without opposition upon the earth, so that squalid bodies are dragged off to death, while the wholesome air of heaven is polluted? Οr, indeed, that the sea does not toss and swell under the blasts of immoderate winds? Or that hurricanes do not burst without warning and stir up a death-dealing tempest? Or, still further, that the earth, the nurse and mother of all, does not sink from its deepest hollows with fearful tremor, and the mountains that lie upon it crash into the resulting chasms? For all these evils, and evils even more terrible, have happened many a time before this, as everyone knows. Αnd all these things happened at once because of the baneful error and vain folly those unhahoVed men, when that error took possession of their souls, and, οne might almost say, oppressed the whole world everywhere with its deeds of shame."

After other remarks he adds: “Let them behold in the broad plains the crops already ripe with waving ears of corn, the meadows, thanks to opportune rains, brilliant with plants and flowers, and the weather that has been granted us temperate and very mild; further, let all rejoice since through our piety, through the sacrifices and veneration we have rendered, the most powerful and intractable air has been propitiated, and Ιet them take pleasure in that they therefore enjoy the most serene peace securely and in quiet. Αnd let as many as have been wholly rescued from that blind folly and error and returned to a right and goodly frame of mind rejoice indeed the [*](1 The text οf this clause is hopelessly corrupt. )

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more, as if they were delievered from an unexpected hurricane or severe illness and were reaping life's sweet enjoyment for the future. But if they persist in their accursed folly, let them be separated and driven far away from your city and neighbourhood, even as you requested; that so, in accordance with your praiseworthy zeal in this respect, your city may be separated from all pollution and impiety, and, following its natural desire, may respond with due reverenee to the worship of the immortal gods.

“Αnd that you may know how pleasing this your request has been to us, and how fully disposed to benevolence our soul is, of its own accord apart from petitioins and entreaties: we permit your Devotedness to ask whatsoever bounty you wish, return for this your godly intent. Αnd now let it be your resolve so to do and receive. For you will obtain your bounty without delay, the granting of which to your city will furnish a testimony for evermore of our godly piety towards the immortal gods, and a proof to your sons and descendants that you have met with the due meed οf reward from our benevolence on account of these your principles of conduct."

This was emblazoned against us in every province, excluding every ray οf hope from our condition, at least as far as human help is concerned; so that, in accordance with the divine oracle itself, if possible

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even the elect themselves should be caused to stumble at these things. In truth, expectation was already almost failing in very many souls, when all at οnce, while those serving the writ set forth against us were οn their way and had not yet finished their journey in some districts, the Champion οf Ηis own Church, even God, stopping, 1 as it were, the proud boasting οf the tyrant against us, displayed Ηis heavenly aid on our behalf.

VIII. The customary rains, indeed, and showers οf the then prevailing winter season were withholding their usual downpour upon the earth, and we were visited with an unexpected famine, and on top of this a plague and an outbreak οf another kind of disease. This later was an ulcer, which on account of its fiery character was called an anthrax. 2 Spreading as it did οver the entire body it used to endanger greatly its victims ; but it was the eyes that it marked οut for special attack, and so it was the means of blinding numbers οf men as well as women and children.

In addition to this, the tyrant had the further trouble οf the war against the Armenians, men who from ancient times had been friends and allies of the Romans; but as they were Christians and exceedingly eamest in their piety towards the Deity, this hater of God, by attempting to compel them to sacrifice to idols and demons, made of them foes instead οf friends, and enemies instead οf allies.

The fact that all these things came together all at οnce, at οne and the same time, served to refute utterly the tyrant's insolent boasting against the Deity ; for he used to affirm insolently that, on [*](precious stone of a dark red colour, and hence is also used οf a malignant ulcer of similar appearance.)

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account of his zeal for the idols and his attack upon us, neither famine nor pestilence nor even war took place in his time. These things, then, coming upon him together and at the same time had constituted the prelude of his overthrow. He himself, therefore, was worn out along with his commanders in the Armenian war: while the rest of the inhabitants of the cities under his rule were so terribly wasted by both the famine and the pestilence, that two thousand five hundred Attic drachmas were given for a single measure of wheat. Countless was the number of those who were dying in the cities, and still larger οf those in the country parts and villages, with the result that the registers, which formerly contained the names of a numerous rural population, were now all but entirely wiped out; for one might almost say that the entire population perished all at once through lack of food and through plague. Some, indeed, did not hesitate to barter their dearest possessions for the scantiest supply of food with those better provided; others sold off their goods little by little and were driven to the last extremity of want; and others again injured their bodily health, and died from chewing small wisps of hay and recklessly eating certain pernicious herbs. Αnd as for the women, some well-born ladies in cities were driven by their want to shameless necessity, and went forth to beg in the market-plaees, displaying a proof of their noble upbringing in their shamefacedness and the decency of their apparel. Αnd some, wasted away like ghosts οf the departed, and at the last gasp, stumbled and tottered here and there from inability
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to stand, and fell down; then, stretched out prone the midst of the streets they would beg for a small οrsel of bread to be handed them, and with the t breath in their body cry out that they were ungry, finding strength for this most anguished of cries alone. Others, such as were regarded as belonging to the wealthier classes, amazed at the ultitude of beggars, after giving countless doles, enceforth adopted a hard and pitiless frame of mind, since they expected that before very long they would be suffering the same misery as the beggars; so that in the midst of market-places and ad and naked bodies lay scattered here and there buried for many days, presenting a most piteous ectacle to those who saw them. Some actually came food even for dogs; and chiefly for this reason οse who were alive turned to killing dogs, for fear t they might become mad and turn to devouring en. But worst οf all, the pestilence also battened on every house, especially those whom the famine uld not completely destroy because they were well provided with food. Men, for example, in affluent cumstances, rulers and governors and numbers of cials, who had been left, as it were of set purpose y the famine for the benefit of the plague, endured a sharp and very speedy death. So every place was 11 of lamentations; in every alley and marketce and street there was nothing to be seen but eral dirges, together with the flutes and noises 1 at accompany them. Thus waging war with the oresaid two weapons, pestilence and famine, death voured whole familes in a short time, so that one ight actually see the bodies οf two or three dead [*](1 Or “beating (of breasts).”)
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persons carried out for burial in a single funeral train.

Such were the wages received for the proud boasting of Maximin and for the petitions presented by the cities against us; while the proofs of Christians' zeal and piety in every respect were manifest to all the heathen. For example, they alone in such an evil state of affairs gave practical evidence of their sympathy and humanity: all day long some of them would diligently persevere in performing the last offices for the dying and burying them (for there were countless numbers, and no one to look after them); while others would gather together in a single assemblage the multitude of those who all throughout the city were wasted with the famine, and distribute bread to them all, so that their action was on all men's lips, and they glorified the God of the Christians, and, convinced by the deeds themselves, acknowledged that they ere truly pious and God-fearing.

Αfter these things were thus accomplished, God, he great and heavenly Champion of the Christians, hen Ηe had displayed Ηis threatening and wrath gainst all men by the aforesaid means, in return for heir exceeding great attacks against us, once again estored to us the bright and kindly radianee of His rovidential care for us. Most marvellously, as in thick darkness, Ηe caused the light of peace to hine upon us from Himself, and made it manifest o all that God Himself had been watching over our ffairs continually, at times scourging and in due eason correcting Ηis people by means of misfortunes, nd again on the other hand after sufficient chastisement

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showing mercy and goodwill to those who fix their hopes on Ηim.

ΙX. Thus in truth Constantine, who, as aforesaid,1 was Emperor and sprung from an Emperor, pious and sprung from a most pious and in every respect most prudent father, and Licinius, who ranked next to him—both honoured for their and piety—were stirred up by the King of God of the universe and Saviour, two men beloved of God, against the two most impious tyrants; and when war was formally engaged, God proved their ally 2 in the most wonderful manner, and Maxentius fell at Rome at the hands of Constantine; while he 3 of the Εast did not long survive him, for he too perished by a most disgraceful death at the hands of Licinius, 4 who had not yet become mad. 4

But to resume. Constantine, the superior of the Emperors in rank and dignity, vas the first to take pity on those subjected to tyranny at Rome; and, calling in prayer upon God who is in heaven, and His Word, even Jesus Christ the Saviour of all, as his ally, he advanced in full force, seeking to secure for the Romans their ancestral liberty. Maxentius, to be sure, put his trust rather in devices of magic than in the goodwill of his subjects, and in truth did not dare to advance even beyond the ’s gates, but with an innumerable multitude of heavy-armed soldiers and countless bodies of legionaries secured every place and district and city that had been reduced to slavery by him in the environs of Rome and in all [*](shorter text of Eusebius Σ) runs as follows : “Thus in truth Constatine . . . most prudent father, was stirred up by the . . . Saviour, aganist those most impious tyrants . . . God proved his ally. ...” 3 Maximin. 4 This clause is a Ιater addition. )

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Italy. The Εmperor, closely relying on the help that comes from God, attacked the first, second and third οf the tyrant's armies, and capturing them with ease advanced over a large part of Italy, actually coming very near to Rome itself. Then, that he might not be compelled because of the tyrant to fight against Romans, God Ηimself as if with chains dragged the tyrant far away from the gates; and those things which were inscribed long ago in the sacred books against wicked men—to which as myth very many gave no faith, yet were they worthy of faith to the faithful—now by their very found faith, in a word, with all, faithful and faithless, who had the miracle before their eyes. As, for example, in the days of Moses himself and the ancient and godly race of the Hebrews, “ Ρharaoh’s chariots and his host hath he cast into the sea, his chosen horsemen, even captains, they were sunk in the Red Sea, the deep covered them’’; in the same way also Maxentius and the armed soldiers and guards around him “went down into the depths like a stone,” he turned his back before the God-sent power that was with Constantine, and was crossing the river that lay in his path, which he himself had bridged right well by joining of boats, and so formed into an engine οf destruction against himself. Wherefore one might say: “Ηe hath made a pit, and digged it, and shall fall into the ditch which he made. Ηis work shall return upon his own head, and his wickedness shall come down upon his οwn pate.”

Thus verily, through the breaking of the bridge οver the river, the passage across collapsed, and down went the boats all at once, men and all, into the deep;

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and first of all he himself, that most wicked of men, and then also the shield-bearers around him, as the divine oracles foretell, sank as lead in the mighty waters. So that suitably, if not in words, at least in deeds, like the followers of the great servant Moses, those who had won the victory by the help of God might in some sort hymn the very same words Which were uttered against the wicked tyrant οf old, and say: “Let us sing unto the Lord, for gloriously hath he been glorified: the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. The Lord is my strength and protector, he is become my salvation’’; and “Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods? who is like thee, glorified in saints, marvellous in praises, doing wonders?’’ These things, and such as are akin and similar to them, Constantine by his very deeds sang to God the Ruler of all and Αuthor οf the victory; then he entered Rome with hymns of triumph, and all the senators and other persons οf great note, together with women and quite young children and all the Roman people, received him in a body with beaming countenances to their very heart as a ransomer, saviour and benefactor, with praises and insatiable joy. But he, as one possessed οf natural piety towards God, was by no means stirred by their shouts nor uplifted by their praises, for well he knew that his help was from God; and straightway he gave orders that a memorial of the Saviour's should be set up in the hand of his own Statue; and indeed when they set him in the most public place in Rome holding the Saviour's sign in his right hand, bade them engrave this very inscription in these words in the Latin tongue: “By this salutary sign,
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the true proof of bravery, I saved and delivered your city from the yoke of the tyrant; and moreover I freed and restored to their ancient fame and splendour both the senate and the people of the Romans.”

Αnd after this Constantine himself, and with him the emperor Licinius, 1 whose mind was not yet deranged by the madness into Which he afterwards fell, 1 having propitiated God as the Αuthor of all their good fortune, both with one will and purpose drew up a most perfect law2 in the fullest terms on behalf οf the Christans 3; and to Maximin, who was still ruler of the provinces of the East and playing at being their friend, they sent on an account of the marvellous things that God had done for them, as well as of their victory over the tyrant, and the law itself. Αnd he, tyrant that he was, was greatly troubled at the intelligence; but, not wishing to seem to yield to others, nor yet to suppress the command through fear of those who had enjoined it, as if of his own motion he penned perforce this first letter on behalf of the Christians to the governors under him; in which he belies himself, and feigns that he had done things he never had.

Copy of a Translation of the Epistle of the Tyrant

“Jovius Μaximinus Augustus to Sabinus. I am persuaded that it is manifest both to thy Firmness and to all men that our masters Diocletian and Maximian, our fathers, when they perceived that [*](1 This clause is a later addition. 2 The so-called Edict of Milan: see X. 5. 1-14. 3 January 313.)

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almost all men had abandoned the worship of the gods and associated themselves with the nation of the Christians, rightly gave orders that all men who deserted the worship of their gods, gods, the the immortal gods, should be recalled to the worship of the gods by open correction and punishment. But when under happy auspices I came for the first time to the East, and learnt that in certain places very many persons who were able to serve the public good were being banished by the judges for the aforesaid reason, I gave orders to each of the judges that of them in future was to deal harshly with the pronincials, but rather by persuasive words and exhortations to recall them to the worship of the gods. It came to pass at that therefore, when when with my injunction the judges observed what was commanded, that no one in the eastem provinces was either banished or suffered insult, but rather was recalled to the worship the gods, because no severe measures were employed against them. But afterwards, when last year under happy auspices I had gone to Nicomedia and was staying there, there came to me citizens of the same city with images of the gods, earnestly requesting that on no account should such a nation be permitted to dwell in their city. But when I learnt that very many οf the same religion dwelt in those very parts, I thus made them reply : That I was gratified, and thanked them for their request, but I perceived that this request did not come from all. If, then, there were some that persevered in the same superstition, let each οne
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keep thus his resolve according as he personally wished ; and if they so desired it, let them acknowledge the worship of the gods. Nevertheless to these same Nicomedians and the rest of the cities, who themselves have so very earnestly addressed me a similar request, namely, that no Christian should inhabit their cities, I was compelled to reply in a friendly manner, because the Emperors of old time had earefully obesrved this very thing, and it was plearing to the gods themselves, by whom 1 all men and the government itself of the state subsist, that2 I should confirm sueh a request as they were on behalf of the worship of their Deity.

“ Therefore, although special letters have been written to thy Devotedness before this time, and likewise it has been laid down by ordinances that no harsh measures should be adopted against provincials who have a mind to persevere in such a custom, but that men should deal with them in a long-suffering and adaptable spirti : nevertheless that they may not suffer insults or extortions at the hands of the beneficiarii 3 or any others whatsoever, Ι think it right by this letter also to put thy Firmness in mind that thou shouldest cause our provincials to recognize the attention they owe to the gods rather by persuasive words and exhortations. Wherefore if any should make it his resolve that the worship of the gods should be recognized, it is fitting to welcome sueh persons; but if some desire to follow their own worship, thou shouldest leave it in their own power. [*](1 δι’ οὕς : probably representing per quos in the original. 2 Omitting οὖν, as suggested by Schwartz. 3 This title was given to mibtary officers οf a high rank In this passage it seems to mean officers in the entourage of a provincial governor. )

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For this reason it behoves thy Devotedness to observe carefully that which is commanded thee, and that authority be given to none to affiict our provincials with insults and extortions, since, as we wrote above, it is fitting to recall our provincials to the worship of the gods rather by exhortations and persuasive words. Αnd that this our injunction may come to the knonledge of all our provincials, it behoves thee to make known that which has been enjoined in an ordinance put forth by thyself.”

Since he issued these commands under the compulsion of necessity and not of his own free will, no one any longer regarded him as truthful or even trustworthy, because after a similar concession he had already on a former occasion showed himself to be changeable and false of disposition. Νone of our people therefore dared to convene an assembly or to present himself in public, beeause the letter did not allow him even this. This alone it laid down, that we should be kept from harsh treatment, but it gave no orders about holding meetings or erecting chureh-buildings or practising any of our customary acts. Αnd yet the adnocates of peace and piety, [Constantine had Licinius], had written to him to allow this, and had conceded it to all their subjects by means of edicts and laws. In truth, this monster of iniquity had resolved not to give in as regards this matter ; until he was smitten by the divine Justice, and at the last against his will forced to do so.

X. The following were the circumstance that hemmed him in. Ηe was unable to carry on the vast government with which he had been undeservedly entrusted ; but, lacking a prudent and

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imperial mind, he managed his affairs tactlessly ; and, above all, his soul was uplifted in an absurd manner by an overweening arrogance, actually against his colleagues in the Empire, men who were in every way his superiors in birth and upbringing and education, in worth and intelligence, and — what is mort important of all — in sobriety and piety towards the true God. so he began to venture to act with insolence, and publicly to style himself first in rank. Then he pushed his madness to the length of insanity, and, breaking the treaty he had made with Licinius, raised an internecine war. Νext, in a short time he threw everything into confusion, greatly disturbed every city, and, gathering together all the anny, an innumerable multitude of men, went forth to fight him in battle-array, his soul uplifted by the hopes he placed in demons, whom, forsooth, he regarded as gods, and in his myriads of armed soldiers.

But when he joined battle, he found himself bereft of divine Providence, for, by the direction of Ηim who is the one and only God of all, the victory was given to Licinius who was then ruling. First of all, the armed soldiers in whom he had trusted were destroyed ; and when his bodyguard had left him defenceless and wholly deserted, and had gone over to him who was ruling,1 the wretched man himself with all speed of the imperial insignia that ill became him, and in a cowardly, base and unmanly way quietly slipt into the crowd. Then he ran about here and there, hiding himself in the helds and villages ; and for all his courting of safety he escaped with difficulty the hands of his enemies, his deeds themselves proclaiming how very trustworthy and true are the divine oracles, in which it has been said :

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“ There is no king saved by much power, and a giant will not be saved by his great strength. Α horse is a vain thing for safety, and will not be saved by his great power. Behold, the eyes of the Lord are upon them that fear him, upon them that hope in his mercy ; to deliver their souls from death.” then, did the tyrant, filled with shame, come to his own territory. Αnd first in his mad fury he put to death many priests and prophets of those gods who had formerly been his admiration, and whose oracles had incited him to begin the war, on the ground that they were charlatans and deceivers and, above all, betrayers of his safety. Νext, he gave glory to the Christians’ God, and drew up a law on behalf of their liberty in the most complete and fullest manner. Then straightway, no respite being granted him, he ended his life by a miserable death.

Νow the law issued by him was as follows :

Copy of a Translation of the Ordinance of the Tyrant οn behalf of the Christians, made from the Latin tongue into the Greek.

“ The Emperor Caesar Gaius Valerius Maximinus Germanicus, Sarmaticus, Ρius Felix Invictus Augustus. We beheve that no one is ignorant, nay that every man who has recourse to the facts knows and is conscious that it is manifest, that in every way we take unceasing thought for the good of our provincials, and desire to grant them such things as are best calculated to secure the advantage of all, and

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whatsoever things are advantageous and useful to their common weal, and such as are suitable to the public advantage and agreeable to every mind Since, therefore, before this it has been evident to our knowledge that, on the plea that the most divine Diocletian and Μaximian, our fathers, had orders for the abolishment of the Christian assemblies, many extortions and robberies have been practised by the officials, and that this increased as time went on to the detriment of our provincials (for whose good it is our especial derire that there should be due thought), and that their own personal possessions were being destroyed : We addressed a letter to the governors in eaeh province last year, laying it down that if any should wish to follow such a custom or the same religious observances, such a one should adhere to his purpose without hindrance, and be hindered or prevented by no one ; and that they should have a free hand, without fear and suspicion, to do whatsoever each one pleases. But it cannot escape our notice even now that some of the judges misinterpreted our injunctions, and caused our people to have doubts with regard to our commands, and made them somewhat backward in joining in those religious observances that were pleasing to them.

“ That, therefore, for the future all suspicion or doubt arising from fear may be removed, we have decreed that this ordinance be published, so that it may be plain to all that those who desire to follow

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this sect and religious observance are permitted, in accordance with this our bounty, as each one wishes οr finds it pleasing, to join in that religious observance which from choice he was wont to praetise. Αnd permission has also been granted them to build the Lord's houses. Nevertheless, that our bounty may be even greater, we have decided to decree this also : that if any houses or lands, which used formerly to belong by right to the Christians, have by the injunction of our parents into the right of the public treasury or have been sriIed by any city— whether a sale of these has taken place, or they have been handed over to anyone as a gift — we have given οrders that all these be restored to the Christians as their original right, so that in this also all may perceive οur piety and solicitude.”

These are the words of the tyrant that came less than a whole year after the ordinances against the Christians, set up by him on tablets ; and he who a short while previously looked upon us as impious and godless and the pests of society, so that we were not pennirted to dwen in, I will not say, a city, but even a spot in the counrty or a desert — this same person drew up ordinances and legislation on behalf οf the Christians ; and those who shortly before were being destroyed by fire and sword and given to wild beasts and birds for food before his eyes, and were enduring every kind of chastisement and punishment and loss of life in the most pitiable manner, as if they were godless and wicked, these he now allows both to observe their fonn worship and to build churches ; and the tyrant himself confesses that they possess certain rights !

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Αnd when he had made these confessions, as if meeting with some kind of reward on this very account—that is, suffering less, to be sure, than behoved him to suffer—he was smitten all at once a stroke of God, and perished in the second οf the war. But the circumstances of his death were not such as fall to the lot of generah on a campaign, who time after time contend bravely on behalf of virtue and friends, and with a good courage meet a glorious end in battle ; but he suffered his due punishment like an impious enemy of God, skulking at home while his army was still stationed in battlearray on the neld. Αll at once he was smitten by a stroke of God over his whole body, with the result that he fell prone under the onslaught of terrible pains and agonies; he was wasted by hunger, and his flesh entirely consumed by an invisible, divinelysent fire; the form which his body once possessed wasted away and there and there remained only a form οf dry bones, like some phantom shape long since reduced to a skeleton, so that those present could not but think that his body become the tomb of his soul, which had been buried in what was now a corpse and completely wasted away. Αnd as the heat consumed him still more foerce;u in the very depths οf his marrow, his eyes projected, and falling from their sockets 1 left him blind. Yet he still breathed in this condition, and making confession to the Lord invoked death. So with his last breath he acknowledged that he suffered thus justly because of his violence against Christ ; and then gave up the ghost.

[*](1 In later Greek λῆξις sometimes means ‘place,’ ‘position’ ; Chrysostom (Hom. lvi. in Job. § 2) uses the word, as Eusebius does here, of he place occupied by the eye. )
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XI. when Maximin was thus removed — he who as the only οne left οf the enemies of godliness, d showed himself the worst of al — by the grace of Almightly God the renewal of the churches from the foundation was set on foot, and the word of Christ received a due increase upon its fonner freedom, and was clearly heard to the glory of the God of the universe; ; while the impiety οf the enemies of godlness was covered with the most abject shame and dishonour. For Maximin himself was the first to be proclaimed by the rulers as a common enemy οf all, and posted in public edicts on tablets as a most impious, most hateful and God-hating tyrant. As to the portraits which were set up in every city to his honour and that of his children, some were hurled from a height to the ground and smashed to pieces, others had their faces blackened over with darkcoloured paint and so rendered useless ; the statues likewise, as many as had been set up in his honour, were cast down and broken in the same manner, and lay as an object of merriment and sport to those who wished to insult or abuse them.

Next, all the honours of the other enemies of godliness also were taken away, and all who were οf the arty of Maximin were slain, especially those in high government positions who had been honoured by him, and who indulged in violent abuse against our doctrine in order to fawn upon him. such was Peucetius, a man whom he honoured and respected above all, the truest of his friends, consul a second and a third time, and appointed by him general finance minister; such likewise was Culeianus, who had gone through every grade of offiee in the government, the same person who gloried in the murder

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countless Christians in Egypt; and in addition to these not a few others, who were the chief means of confirming and increasing Maximin's tyranny.

So it was that Theotecnus also was summoned by Justice, who in no wise consigned to oblivion what he did against the Christians. For after he had set up the idol 1 at Antioch, he seemed to be prospering, and had actually been deemed worthy of a governorship by Maximin; but when Licinius came to the city οf the Antiochenes, he made a search for charlatans, and plied with tortures the the prophets and priests of the new-made idol, to find out by what contrivance they were practising this deceit. Αnd when the infliction of the tortures made concealment impossible for them, and they revealed that the whole mystery was a deceit manufactured by the art of Theotecnus, he inflicted a just punishment upon them all, putting to death, arter a long series οf tortures, first neotecnus himself, and then also the partners in his charlatanry.

To all these were added the sons οf Maximin, whom he had already caused to share the imperial dignity and to be set up in paintings and pictures.2 Αnd those who formerly boasted kinship with the tyrant and were moved by pride to lord it οver all men underwent the same sufferings, accompanied by the most abject disgrace, as those mentioned above; for they received not correction, nor did they know or understand the exhortatlon in the sacred books which says : “ Ρut not your trust ln princes, in the sons of men, in whom there is no help His breath shall go forth and he shall return to his [*](1 See c. 3. 2 Cf. § 2 above. )

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earth. In that day all his thoughts shall perish.” 1 Thus verily when the impious ones had been purged away, the kingdom that belonged to them was preserved stedfast and undisputed for Constantine and Licinius alone; who, when they had made it their very first action to purge the world of enmity against God, conscious of the good things that Ηe had bestowed upon them, displayed their love of virtue and of God, their piety and gratitude towards the Deity, by their enactment on behalf of the Christians.

[*](the Saviour and Redeemer of our souls, Jesus Christ, though whom we pray continually that peace from troubles without and troubles in the heart may be preserved for us stedfast and ” In Σ this sentence also begins Book X. (In Σ it is found in both places.) The text as printed is probably that οf the earlier editions οf Eusebius (see vol. i. pp. xix ff.), and was naturally omitted in the last recension, after the Damnatio memoriae of Licinius.)
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CONTENTS OF BOOK X

The Τenth Book of the Ecclesiastical History contains the following:

I. On the peace vouchsafed to us from God.

II. On the restoration of the churches.

III. On the dedications in every place.

IV Panegyric οn the joyful condiition of affairs.

V. Copies of imperial laws having reference to the Christians.

VI. Οn the exemption from public service granted to the clerics.

VII. On the subsequent wiekedness οf Lieinius and his tragic end.

VIII. On the victory Constantine and the blessings which he was the means of procuring for the subjects of the Roman Empire.

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BOOK X

I. Thanks be to God, the Almighty and King of the universe, for all things; and abundant thanks be also the Saviour and Redeemer of our souls, Jesus Christ, through whom we pray continually that peace from troubles without and troubles in the heart may be preserved for us stedfast and unidsturbed.

Αnd having now added, while we pray, the tenth tome also of the Ecclesiastical History to those which preceded it, we shall dedicate this tome to thee, my οst holy Paulinus, 1 invoking thee as the seal of the whole work; and fitly in a perfect number we shall here place the perfect and panegyrical discourse on the restoration of the churches, in obediencce to the divine Spirit who thus exhorts us: “O sing unto the Lord a new song; for he hath done marvellous things: His right hand, and His holy arm, hath wrought salvation for him. The Lord hath made wn his salvation: His righteousness hath Ηe revealed in the sight of the heathen.

Αnd verily, in accordance with the oracle, which thus bids us, let us now cry aloud the new song, since, after those terrible and gloomy spectacle and narratives, we were accounted worthy now to behold [*](1 Bishop οf Tyre, and subsequently οf his nativc city, Antioch. Eusebius had a great admiration for him, and dedicated to him not only this book but also his Onomasticon. )

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and to celebrate in panegyric such things as οf a many righteous men and martyrs of God Before desired to see upon earth and saw them not, and hear, and heard them not. But they indeed ting with all speed, obtained far better things in the heavens themselves and were caught up into a aradise of divine pleasure; while we, acknowledge that even these present things are beyond our , have been utterly astounded at the munificence οf the bounty of which Ηe is the Αuthor, and h our whole soul's might fittingly render Ηim awe and worship, attesting the truth of the written preedictions, wherein it is said: “came and behold the works οf the Lord, what wonders Ηe hath the earth, making wars to cease unto the ends of the earth. Ηe break break the bow and shatter the ur, and the shields he will bum with fire.” Rejoicing that these things have been clearly fuld to us-ward, led us proceed to take up οur narrative.

The whole race of God's enemies had verily been moved even as we have stated, 1 and in a moment lotted out of men's sight; so that once more a divine ying hath fulfilment, that which says: “I have seen e wicked in great power, and lifted up like the cedars f Leganon. Αnd I passed by, and, lo, he was not: d I sought his place, and it was not ” nd how henceforth a day bright and radiant with ys of heavenly light, overshadowed by never a ud, shone down upon the churches of Christ ughout the whole world ; nor were even those utisde οur society 2 grudged, if not the equal enjoyment [*](sense it is used here. But its application to the Christian iety is remarkable. )

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of our divinely-sent blessings, at any rate a in their effluence and a participation thereof.

II. So the whole human race was freed from the oppression οf the tyrants. Αnd, delivered from his former ills, each one after his own fashion acknowledged as the only true God Him who was the Champion of the pious. But we especially, who had fixed οur hopes upon the Christ of God, had gladness kable, and a divine joy blossomed in the hearts of us as we beheld every place, which a short time re had been laid in ruins by the tyrants' deeds, now reviving as if after a long and deadly destruction, and temples rising once more from their foundations to a boundless height, and receiving in far greater measure the magnificence of those that formerly had been destroyed.

Yea, and Emperors, the most exalted, by successive enacbnents on bahalf of the Christians, confirmed still further and more widely God's bounty towards us; and bishops constantly received even personal letters from the Emperor, and honours and gifts οf money. It may not be unfitting at the proper place in this work, as on a sacred monument, to insert in this book the text of these documents, translated from Latin into Greek, so that they may also be preserved in remembrance by all those who come after us.

III. After this there was brought about that spectacle for which we all prayed and longed: festivals of dedication in the cities and consecrations οf the newly-built houses of prayer, assemblages of bishops, comings together of those from far off foreign lands, kindly acts on the part of laity towards laity, union between the members οf Crist's body

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as they met together in complete harmony. Certainly in accordance with a prophetic prediction that mystically signified beforehand what was for to come, there came together bone to bone and joint to joint, and all that the oracular utterance in dark speech truly foretold. One was the power of the divine Spirt that spread through all the members; all were of one soul, and displayed the same zeal for the faith; one hymn of praise to God came from the lips of all Yea verily our leaders conducted perfect ceremonies, and the consecrated priests pertonned the sacred rites and stately ordinances of the Church, here with psalmody and recitation of such other words as have been giveu us from God, there with the ministering of divine and mystic services; and the ineffable symbols of the Saviour's Ρassion were present. Αnd all together, of every age, male and female, with the whole power of their mind gave honour to God the Αuthor of their good fortune, in prayer and thanksgiving with joyful heart and soul.

Moreover every one of the Church's rulers that were present, accorffing to his ability, delivered panegyrical orations, inspiring the assembly.

IV. Αnd a certain one of moderate parts 1 advanced into the midst, having composed a discourse; and, in the presence of very many pastors who gave it a quiet and orderly hearing as in a chureh assembly, he delivered the following oration, addressed personally to a single bishop who was in every respect most excellent and beloved of God, by whose zeal and enthusiasm the temple in Tyre, surpassing in splendour all οthers in Phoenicia, had been erected:

[*](1 Eusebius himself.)
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Panegyric on the building of the churches, addressed to Paulinus, bishop of the Tyrians:

“Ο friends of God and priests who are clothed with the holy robe1 and the celestial crown of glory, the divine unction and the Ρriestly garb of the Holy Spirit; and thou, Ο youthful pride of God's holy temple, honoured indeed by God with revered wisdom, yet noted for the choiee deeds and acts of a youthful virtue that cometh to its prime, upon whom Ηe who compasseth the whole world hath bestowed the especial honour of building Ηis house upon earth, and restoring it for Christ Ηis only-begotten firstborn Word and for Christ's holy and reverend Bride-whether one should call thee a new the architeet of a divine tabernacle, or Solomon the king of a new and far goodlier Jerusalem, or even a new Zerubbabel who bestowed upon the temple of God that glory which greatly exceeded the former; and you also, ye nurslings of the sacred flock of Christ, –place of goodly words, school of sobriety, auditory of godliness grave and dear to God: Long ago, as we listened to the reading aloud of those passages of Holy Writ which told of the miraculous signs that God gave and the wondrous deebs that the Lord wrought for the serviee of men we could hymns and songs to God and say, even as we were taught: ‘We have heard with our ears, Ο God, our fathers have told us, what work thou didst in their days, in the days of old.’ But now indeed no longer by hearing or by report do we learn of the stretched out arm and the heavenly right hand of [*](priestly attire: cf. Exod. xxix. 5 τὸν χιτῶνα τὸν ποδήρη lit. “the garment reaching to the feet.” )

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οur all-gracious God and universal King; nay, deeds, as one might say, and with our very eyes do we behold that those things committed to memory long ago are faithful and true; and so we can sing a second hymn οf victory, and raise our voices aloud and say: ‘As we have heard, so have we seen in the city of the Lord of hosts, in the city οf οur God.’ Αnd in what city, if it be not the new-made city that God hath builded, which is the chureh of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth; οf also another divine oracle speaketh good tidings, somewhat on this manner: ‘Glorious things are spoken of thee, O city οf God’ ? To which city since the all-gracious God hath gathered us, through the grace of Ηis Only-begotten, let each ofthe sing, yea all but shout, and say ‘I was glad when they said unto me, we will go unto the house οf the Lord’ ; Lord’; and ‘Lord I have loved the beauty house, and the place where thy glory dwelleth.’ Αnd let not οnly each one by himself, but also all together with οne spirit and one soul, give honour and praise, saying: ‘Great is the Lord, and highly to be praised, in the city of οur God, in his holy ’. Yea verily, Ηe is truly great, and great is Ηis house, lofty and large ; and more lovely in beauty than the sons of men. Great is the Lord who only doeth wondrous things. Great is Ηe who doeth great things and past finding out; yea, glorious and marvellous things of which there is no number. Great is Ηe who changeth the times and the seasons, removing kings and setting them up, raising up the poor from the ground, and from the dunghill setting up the needy. Ηe hath put down princes from their thrones, and hath exalted them of low degree from the
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ground. The hungry he hath filled with good things, and he hath broken the arms of the proud. since, therefore, Ηe hath confirmed not only for the faithful but also for the faithless the record of the ancient narratives, even Ηe, the Doer of wonders, the Doer of great things, the Lord of the universe, the Μaker of the whole world, the Αlmighty, the All-gracious, the one and only —let us sing to Ηim the new song, supplying in thought this also: ‘To him who alone doeth great wonders: for his mercy endureth for ever . . . to him which smote great kings, . . . and slew mighty kings; for his mercy endureth for ever . . . for he remembered us in our low estate, . . . and hath delivered us from our adversaries.’

“Αnd may we never cease to praise aloud in these Words the Father οf the universe. But as for Him who is the second cause of our good things, Who brought men to the knowledge of God, the Teacher of true piety, the Destroyer of the wicked, the Slayer of tyrants, the Εmender οf human life, our saviour when we were in despair, even Jesus, let us honour Ηis name upon our lips; for Ηe alone, as being the οne only, all-gracious Son of an all-gracious since the Father in His love for man so ordained it, right willingly put οn the nature of us, even of those who anywhere lay low in corruption. And like some excellent physician, who, to save those who are sick, ‘though he sees the ills yet touches the foul spots, and for another's misfortunes reaps suffering for himself,’1 so Ηe by Ηimself saved the very abyss of death us who were not merely sick or oppressed by grievous sores and wounds already putrifying, but even lying among the dead; for none [*](1 Hippocrates, Περὶ φυσῶν 1.)

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other in heaven possessed such strength as to minister unscathed for the salvation of so many. Ηe, then, it was who alone laid hold upon the grievous suffering of οur corruption, alone endured our sorrows, alone took upon Himself the penalty for our wickednesses; and when we were, I will not say, half dead, but even by this time altogether foul and stinking in tombs and graves, Ηe raised us up, and saveth us now as in the days ofold, in Ηis earnest love for man, beyond the hope of anyone, even οf ourselves, and the good things of Ηis Father imparteth to us freely a share — Ηe who is the Giver of life the Enlightener, our great Physician and King and Lord, the Christ of God. Yea at that time, when Ηe beheld 1 the whole human raee lring sunk in gloomy night and daxkness profound through the deceit of baneful demons and the operations of God-hating spirits, by naught save Ηis appearing Ηe broke asunder once for all the many-fettered chains of our wickednesses, as wax is melted by the rays of Ηis light.

“Αnd when at this great grace and benefaction the envy that hateth the good, even the demon that loveth the evil, was torn asunder with wrath, so to speak, and was marshalling all his death-dealing forces against us, at first raging like a dog which gnaweth with his teeth at the stone hurled at him and venteth on the lifeless missiles hls fury agamst those who would drive him away, he ffirected his ferocious madness against the stones of the houses οf prayer and the lifeless materials of which the buildings were composed, to work (as at least he thought within himself) the ruin οf the churches; then he emitted his dread hissings and serpent-like sounds, at [*](1 Supplying ὀρῶν, as Schwartz suggests. )

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οne time by the threats of wicked tyrants, at another by blasphemous ordinances of impious rulers; yea further, he vomited forth the death that was his, and bewitched the souh he captured by his baneful and soul-destroying poisons, all but causing their death by his death-fraught sacrifices to dead idols, and secretly stirring up every wild beast in shape of man, and every kind of savage thing, agriaInst us. But now, now again once more the Αngel of mighty counsel, the great captain of the host of God, after that the greatest soldiers in Ηis kingdom had given sufficient proof of their full training by their endurance and stedfastness in all things, by naught save His sudden apearing caused to vanish into nothingness whatsoever was adverse and hostile, so that it seemed never to have had even a name; howbeit, whatsoever was friendly and dear to Him, that Ηe advanced beyond all glory in the sight of all, not only of men, but even also οf the powers of heaven, the sun and moon and stars, and of the whole heaven and earth ; so that now — a thing unknown heretofore—the most Emperors of all, conscious of the honour which they have received nom Him, spit upon the faces οf dead idoh, traInple upon the unhallowed rites οf deomons, and laugh at the old deceits they inherited from their fathers: but Him who is the common Benefactor of all and of themselves they recognize as the one and only God, and confess that christ the son οf God is sovereign King of the universe, and style Him as Saviour on monuments, inseribing in an imperishable record Ηis righteous acts and His victories over the impious ones, in imperial characters in the midst of the city that is Empress among the cities of the world.
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Thus Jesus Christ our Saviour, alone of those who have ever been, is acknowledged, even by the most exalted on the earth, not as an ordinary king taken from among men, but is worshipped as the very son of the God οf the universe, and as Ηimself God.

“Αnd rightly so. For what king ever attained to so much virtue as to ml the ears and tongues of all mankind upon earth with his name 7. what king, when he had laid down laws so good and wise, Was powerful enough to cause them to be published from the ends of the earth and too the bounds οf the whole world in the hearing of all mankind? who abolished the barbarous and uncivilized customs of uncivilized nations by his civilized and most humane laws ? Who, when warred on by all men for whole ages, gave such proof of superhuman might as to flourish daily and remain young throughout his entire life? Who established a nation never even heard οf since time hegan, which now lieth not hidden in some obscure corner οf the earth but extendeth wherever the sun shineth? Who so defended his soldiers with the weapons of piety that their souls proved harder than adamant when they contended with their adversaries ? Which of the king exerciseth so great a sway, taketh the Reld after death, triumpheth οver enemies, and filleth every plaee and district and city, both Greek and barbarian, with votive offerings οf his royal houses and divine temples, such as the fair ornaments and offerings that we see in this temple ? Truly venerable and great are these Same things, worthy οf amazement and wonder, and in themselves clear proofs of the sovereignty of οur saviour: for even now Ηe spake, and they were made; Ηe

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commanded, and they were created: for what could resist the will of the universal King and Ruler and the Word of God Himself? Such things would require a discourse of their own were one carefully to exmaine and expound them at leisure. Υet indeed the zeal of those who have laboured is not so great or so noble in the judgement of Him whom we address as God, when Ηe looketh into the lively temple which we all compose, and vieweth the house formed of living and firmly set stones, well and securely grounded upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone; which stone the master–builders rejected, not only of that old building which is no more, but also of that building which compriseth the more part of mankind to the present day, evil workmen as they were of evil things; but the Father approved it, and then and now builded it into the head of the corner of this our common Church. This living temple, then, of a living God Formed out of ourselves, Ι mean the greatest sanctuary and truly reverend, whose innermost shrine may noit be seen by the common eye, for verily holy it is and a holy οf —who that viewed it would dare to describe ? Who is able even to peer into the temple buildings that surround it, save only the great High Priest of the universe, to whom alone it is peimitted to search the hidden mysteries of every rational soul But perehance it is possible for another also, and for one alone among equals, to take the second place after Ηim, namely, for the commander who presideth over this army, whom the first and great High Priest Himself hath honoured with the second place in the priestly ministries of thhis place, the pastor of your
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divine flock who was allotted and adjudged your people by the Father, as Ηe Ηimself had appointed him Ηis attendant and interpreter, the new Αaron οr Melchizedek, made like unto the Son οf God, abiding and kept by Ηim continually by the common prayers of you all. To him, therefore, let it be permitted alone, after the first and greatest High Priest, if not in the first at any rate in the second place, to behold and inspect the inmost recesses of your souh; since through experience and length of time 1 he hath proved eaeh one and and his his zealous care he hath disposed you all in a godly order and doctrine; and he best of all is able to give such an account as will match his deedS, of those things that he himself hath wrought by the power οf God. “Νow our first and great Ηigh Priest saith that whatsoever things he seeth the Father doing, these the son also doeth in like manner. Αnd this one also, looking unto the nrst as unto a master with the pure eyes of the mind, whatsoever he seeth Ηim doing, these he useth as patterns and archetypes, and by his worbnanship hath wTought their images, as far as in him lieth, into the closest likeness; thus in no wise doth he come behind that Bezalel, whom God Himself filled with the spirit of wisdom and understanding and with the knowledge as well of crafts and sciences, and called him to be the workman that should construct the temple of heavenly types in symbolic fashion. After this manner, then, this man also, bearing in his own soul the image of Christ entire, the Word, the Wisdom, the Light, [*](1 These words seem to imply that Paulinus, though young, had been bishop for some time.)
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ηαth formed this magnificent temple of God most hing, answering in its nature to the pattern of that ich is better, even as the visible answereth to the visible; nor could one describe with what noblenindedness, with what a liberal hand — whose will to ve was insatiable—and with what emulation on of you all ye nobly ried with one another by the ge-hearthedness of your contributions in no come behind him in this selksame purpose. Αnd place-which thing also is worthy to be first οf all—which by the evil designs of emies had been corvered with all kinds of vile bbish, he did not overlook nor sunender to the alice οf those who did this, though he might have ighted upon another spot (for the city supplied untless other sites), and thus found relief from toil freedom from trouble. Νay, he first of all ed himself to the word; then by his zeal he ngthened the whole people, and gathering together all into οne great body, entered upon the t contest; for he deemed that she especially ho had been destroyed by the enemy, she who had en aforetime afflicted and had endured the same rsecutions as we and before us, even the church who ike a mother had been bereft οf her children, should ave her share in the enjoyment of the bounty of the -gracious God. For since once more the great hepherd, having driven away the wild beasts and e wolves and every kind of cruel and savage crature, and having broken the great teeth of the ions, as the divine oracles say, once more had vouched to bring Ηis sons together, it was most meet hat he should also set up the fold of the flock, that e might put to shame the enemy and the avenger,
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and openly rebuke the evil deeds of impious men fighting against God. Αnd now these men, the haters of God, are no more, for they never were; but after troubling and being troubled for a little while, then they paid to Justice no contemptible penalty, accomplishing the utter overthrow of themselves, their friends and houses; so that the predictions whieh long ago had been inscribed on sacred records are confessedly proved trustworthy by the facts, in which among other true things that the divine word speaketh, this also it declareth concerning them: ‘The wicked have drawn out the sword and have bent their bow; to east down the poor and needy, to slay the upright in heart: may their sword enter into their own hearts, and may their bows be broken’; broken’ ; and again: ‘Their perished with a sound,’ and ‘Their name hath blotted out for ever and for ever and ever’; verily when they also were in trouble ‘They cried, and there was none to save: unto the Lord, and he did not hear them’; yea, they indeed ‘had their feet together and fell, but we rose and stood upright’; and that which was predicted in these words, ‘Lord, in thy city thou shalt set at naught their image,’ hath been shown to be true before the eyes of all.

“But they verily, engaging like giants in battle against God, have thus brought their lives to a miserable end; while the issue of that godly enduranee on the part of her who was deserted and rekected by men was such as we have seen; so that the propheey of Isaiah ealleth aloud unto her in these words: ‘Be glad, Ο thirsty desert; let the desert rejoice and blossom as a lily; and the desert places shall blossom forth and rejoice. . . . Be strong, ye hands that

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hang down, and ye palsied knees. Be of good courage, ye feeble-hearted, be strong, fear not; behold, our God recompenseth judgement, and will recompense; he will come and save you. . . . For,’ saith he, broke out in the desert, and a stream in thirsty ground. Αnd the waterless place shall become marsh-meadows, and upon the thirsty ground shall be a foundain of water.’

“Now these things, foretold long ago had been recorded in the sacred books in words; howbeti the deeds have come down to us no longer by hearsay, but in actual fact. This desert, this waterless plaee, this widowed and defenceless one, whose gates they cut down with axes as in a thicket of trees; whom together with hatchet and hammer they brake down; whose books also they destroyed and set ond frie the sanetuary of God; they profaned the dwelling-place of His name to the ground; whom all they which pass by the way did pluck, having before broken down her fences, whome the boar out of the wood did ravage and on whom the solitary wild beast did feed: now by the miraculous power of Christ, when Ηe willeth it, hath become as a lily. For at that time also by His command, as of a careful father, she was chastened. For whom the Lord loveth Ηe chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom Ηe receiveth. So then, after being corrected in due measure, once more again She is bidden anew to rejoice, alld she, blossoms forth as a lily and breathes upon all men of her divine, sweet odour; for, saith he, water broke out in the desert, the streams of the divine regeneration that the washing of salvation bestoweth; and that which a short time before was deert hath now become marsh-meadows, and a fountain of living water hath burst forth upon the thirsty ground; and

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in very truth hands that before hung down have me strong, of the stength of which hands these t and maniifest works are tokens. Yea, and the es that long ago were diseased and relaxed have vered their natural movement, and go straight ard upon the way of the knowledge of God, tinh to the flock of the all-gracious Shepherd, eir true home. But if through the threats of the ants the souls of some have waxed numb, not even ese the saving Word pass by as incurable, but ht Ηe health them also and urgeth them on ards divine encouragement, encouragement, saying: ‘Be of courage, ye feeble-hearted, be strong, fear not.’ “The word which prophesied that she whom God made desert was to enjoy these blessings, this new and goodly Zerubbabel 1 heard with the sharp ing of his mind, after that bitter captivity and abomination of desolation; nor did he pass by e corpse as dead, but first of all with entreaties d prayer he propitiated the Father with the common nsent οf you all; and taking as his Αlly and Fellow- rker Him who alone can quicken the dead, he ised up her that had fallen, having first cleansed and aled her οf her ills; and he clothed her with a ent, the old one that she had from the geinning, but with such a one as he was once more cted by the divine oracles, which thus clearly y : ‘Αnd the latter glory of this house shall be ater than the former.’

“Thus, then, the whole area that he enclosed was uch larger. 2 The outer enclosure he made strong [*](1 i.e. that occupied by the previous church. The iption here given (§§ 37-45) is the earliest t we possess of the stucture and furniture of a Christian )

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with the surrounding surrounding the whole, so that it might a most secure defence thereof; while he spread t a porch, great and raised aloft, towards the rays the rising sun, and even to those standing far outside the sacred precincts supplied no scanty view of at which is within; thus, one might say, turning he gaze, even of strangers to the faith, towards the t entrances, so that none might hastily pass by ithout first haring his soul mightily struck by the emory of the former desolation and the wondrous iracle οf to-day; struck by which he hoped that rchance such a one would also be impelled, and ve his steps tumed forwards by the bare sight, wards the entrance. Νow he hath not permitted im that passeth inside the gates to tread forthwith ith unhallowed and unwashen feet upon the holy laces withing; but hath left a space exceeding large tween the temple and the first entrances, and orned it au around with four transvers colonnades, encing the place into a kind of quadrangular figure, ith pillars raised on every side, and filling the spaces tween them with wooden barriers οf lattice-work ising to a convenient height; and in the midst ereof he hath left an open space where men can e the sky, thus providing it with air bright and pen to the rays of light Αnd here he hath placed of sacred purifications, by erecting fountains ight opposite the temple, whose copious streams οf owing water supply cleansing to those who are vancing within the sacred precincts. Αnd this is he first stopping-place for those that enter; supply- g at once adornment and splendour to the whole, d a place οf sojourn suited to such as are still in need οf their first instructions.

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“But verily, passing by this spectacle, he hath own οpen passages to the temple by means of nermost porches in still greater numbers, once again der the rays οf the sun placing three gates on οne de, upon the middle one of which he hath bestowed height and side that far surpasseth the two on either ide, and hath singled it out for special adornment ith bronze fastenings bound with iron and varied bossed work, making the others a bodyguard, as were, beneath it as their queen. Αnd after the e manner he hath also ordered the number of the rches for the colonnades on either side of the tire temple; and above them hath derised as well parate opening into the building to give still further ght; and for these also he hath wrought a varied ornment with delicately-carved wood.

‘‘Νow as to the royal house, 1 he hath builded it of thundant and still richer materials, eagerly desiring spare no expenses. I deem it superfluous for me to escribe here the length and breadth of the edifice, recount in full the brilliant beauty, the magnitude words can express, and the dazzling appearance οf e workmanship, yea, and the loftniness that reacheth eaven, and the costly cedars of Lebanon that are hced above; the mention of which even the divine acle doth not pass over in silence, sayinn: ‘The ees of the Lord shall be glad, even the cedars οf banon which he hath planted.’

“Why need I now speak more partieularly οf the perfect widom and art with which the building hath been ordered, and the surpassing beauty οf every part, when the witness of the eyes leaveth no plaee for the instruction that cometh through the ears? [*](1 Or, as we should say, “basilica.”)

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Νevertheless, having thus completed the temple he adοrned it with thrones, very lorty, to do honour unto the Ρresidents, and likewise with benches arranged in order throughout in a convenient manner; and after all these he hath plaeed in the midst the holy of holies even the altar, and again surrounded this part also, that the multitude might not trea thereon, with a fence of wooden lattice-work, delicately wrought with the crartsman’s utmost skill, so as to present a marvellous Spectaele to those that see it.

“Νor did even the pavement, as one might suppose, escape his care. This also, for example, he hath made exceeding brilliant with every kind of fair marble; and then, finally, passing on outside the temple as well, he hath construeted chambers and building on either side, very large, the which he hath skilfully μnited together to the sides ofthe royal house,1 and These with the openings into the central building. These also were wrought by our most peaceful solomon, who builded the temple of God, for those who still have need of cleansing and sprinkling with water and the Ηoly spirit, insomuch that the aforesaid said prophecy 2 is no longer a word only, but is become a fact. For the latter glory of this house hath become, and in truth even now is, greater than the fonner.

“For it was meet and right that, as her shepherd and Lord had suffered οnce for all death on her behalf, and after the Ρassion had changed the foul body with which Ηe had clothed Ηinself for her sake into His splendid and glOrious body, and brought the very flesh that was dissoleved from corruption into incor- [*](2 § 36.)

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ruption, she also likewise should enjoy the fruits of e dispensations of the sariour. For verily having eived from Him a promise of much better things even these, she longeth to receive as her due, tingly and for the ages that are to come, the much eater glory of the new birth in the resurrection of an incorruptible body, in the company of the choir the angels of light in the kingdoms οf God beyond e heavens, with Christ Jesus Himself her supreme nefector and Saviour. But meanwhile in the ent time she who hath long been a widow and eserted hath been robed by the grace of God with ese blossoms, and is become in truth as a lily, as ith the prophecy; and haring received again the arb οf a bride and put on the gariand of beauty, she taught by Isaiah to dance, as it were, presenting er thank-ofering to the glory of God the King in words of praise. Let us listen to her as she saith: Let my soul rejoice in the Lord; for he hath clothed me vith the gannent of salvation and the cloke οf ladness, he hath put a chaplet upon me as a brideoom, and hath adomed me mth adomment as a ride. And as the earth that maketh her flower to ow, and as the garden causeth the things that are wn in it to spring forth; so the Lord, the Lord, ill cause righteeousness and rejoicing to spring forth efore all the nations.’

“With these words, then, she danceth. But with hat words the Bridegroom also, even the heavenly ord, Jesus Christ Ηimself, answereth her, hear the rd as Ηe saith: ‘Fear not for that thou hast been ut to shame; neither dread for that thou hast en put to reproach: for thou shalt forget thy everything shame, and the reproach of thy widowhood

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It thou remember no more . . . Not as a wife aken and rriaInt-hearted hath the Lord called thee, r as a wife hated from her youth, saith thy God. or a little time I forsook thee; and with great mercy will have mercy on thee. In a little wrath I hid my face from thee, and with everlasting mercy I will ve mercy οn thee, saith the Lord who delivered Awake, awake, . . . thou who hast dmnk e hand of the Lord the cup of his fury; for the cup staggering, the bowl of fury, thou hast drunk and it. Αnd there was none to comfort thee ong all thy sons whom thou hast brought forth; there was none to take thee by the hand. . . . hold I have taken out οf thine hand the cup of gering, the bowl of my fury; and thou shalt no re it again: and I will put it into the hands them that did thee wrong and of them that umbled thee. . . . Αwake, awake, put on strength, . . put οn thy glory. . . . shake off the dust and ise sit thce down . . . loose the band from thy ck. Lift up thine eyes round about and behold y children gathered together Behold they were thered together and came to thee. Αs I live, ith the Lord, thou shalt clothe thee with them all with an ornament, and gird thyself with them as ith the ornament of a bride. For thy desolate and estroyed and ruined places shall now be too strait reason οf them that inhabit thee, and they that wallow thee up shall be far away from thee. For sons whom thou hast lost shall say in thy ears, the place is too strait for me : give place to me that Ι ay dwell.’ Αnd thou shalt say in thine heart, th hegorten me these ? I am children and a idow, but as for these, who hath brought me them
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up? I was left alone, but these, where had I them?’

“These things Isaiah prophesied, these things had οf οld been recorded concerning us in sacred books; but it was neeessary that somehow we should come to learn their truthfulness at some time by facts. Moreover, since the Brdegroom, even the Word, thus addresseth Ηis Bride, the sacred and Ηοly church, fittingly did this paranymph 1 streteh out your hands in the common prayers of you all, and awake and raise up her who was desolate, who lay like a corpse, οf whom men despaired, by the will of God the universal King and the manifestation οf the power οf Jesus Christ; and having raised he restored her to be such as he learnt from the record of the sacred oracles.

“Α mightly wonder truly is this, and surpassing all amazement, especially in the eyes of such as take heed only to the appearance of outward things. But more wonderful than wonders are the archetypes, the rational prototypes of these things, and their divine models, 2 I mean the renewal οf the God-given, spirtual edince in our souls. This edifice the Son of God Himself created in Ηis own image, and everywhere and in all things hath bestowed upon it the divine likeness, an incorruptible nature, an essence incorporeal, spiritual, a stranger to all earthly matter and endowed with intelligence of its οwn; once for all at the first Ηe fonned it into being from that which was not, and hath made it a holy bride and an allsacred temple for Himself and the Father. Αnd this [*](church is more wonderful is the restoration of the soul, insamuch as the spriitual, is the archetype or prototype of the material. )

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also Ηe Himself clearly showeth, when Ηe thus confesseth: ‘I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.’ Such then, is the perfect and purified soul, thus begotten from the beginning so as to bear the image οf the heavenly Word.

“But when through the envy and jealousy οf demon which loveth evil she became of her own free choice a lover of that which is sensual and evil, and the Deity departed from her, leaving her bereft οf a protector, she fell an easy capture and prey to the snares of those who long had enried her; and, laid low by the engines and machines of her invisible enemies and spiritual foes, she fell a tremendous fall, so that not even one stone upon another of her virtue remained standing in her; nay, she lay her full length upon the ground, absolutely dead, altogether deprived of her inborn thoughts concerning God. Yea, verily, as she lay fallen there, she who was made in the image of God, it was not that boar οut of the wood which we can see that ravaged her, but some death-dealing demon and spiritual wild beasts, who also have inflamed her with their passions as with fiery darts of their οwn wickedness, and have set the truly divine sanctuary of God on fire, and have profaned the dwelling-place of Ηis name to the ground; then they buried the hapless οne in a great heap οf earth, and brought her to a state bereft of all hope of salvation.

“But her Guardian, the Word, the divinely-bright and saving one, when she had paid the just penalty for her sins, once more again rertored her, hearkening to the living-kindness οf an all-gracious Father.

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First, then, choosing unto Himself the souls of the upreme Emperors, by means of these men most dearly beloved οf God Ηe cleansed the whole world of all wicked and baneful persons and of the cruel God-hating tyrants themselves. Αnd then men that were Ηis disciples, who all their life long had been consecrated to Ηim, yet secretly concealed, as in a storm οf evils, by Ηis sheltering care, these Ηe brought out openly and honoured worthily with the great gifts οf His Father's bounty. Αnd by their means Ηe once more purified and cleansed with pickaxes and mattocks, namely, the penetrating teachings οf Ηis instruction, those souls which a short time before had been befouled and overlaid with every sort οf matter and rubbish contained in impious decrees; and when Ηe had made bright and clear the place of the understanding of all of you, Ηe then for the future consigned it to this all-wise and God-beloved ruler. Ηe, discerning and as he is in an else, distinguisheth also and discerneth the understanding of the souls committed to his charge ; and from the first day, so to speak, even unto now he hath never ceased to build, and among you all to fit into its place, at one time the radiant gold, at another the approved and purified silver and the precious and costly stones; so as οnce more to fulfil in his deeds to you-ward the sacred and mystic prophecy, in which it hath been said: ‘Βehold I prepare for thee thy stone οf carbuncle, and thy foundations of sapphire, and thy battlements οf jasper, and thy gates οf crystals, and thy wall of choice stones, and all thy sons taught of God, and in great peace thy children: and in righteousness shalt thou be built.'

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“Building verily in righteousness, 1 he duly divided the whole people according to their several abilities; with some he fenced the outer enclosure and this alone, surrounding it with a wall of unerring faith (and this was the great multitude of the people who were unable to support a mightier structure); to others he entrusted the entrances to the house, setting them to haunt the doors and guide the steps of those entering, wherefore they have not unnaturally been reckoned as gateways of the temple; he supported with the first outer pillars that are about the quadrangular courtyard, bringing them to their first acquaintance with the letter of the four Gospels. Others he joineth closely to the royal house on either side, still indeed under instruction and in the stage of progressing and advancing, yet not far off nor greatly separated from the faithful who possess the divine vision of that which is innermost. Taking from the number of these last the pure souls that have been cleansed like gold by the divine washing, he then supporteth some of them with pillars much greater than the outermost, from the innermost mystic teachings of the Scriptures, while others he illumineth with apertures towards the light. The whole temple he adorneth with a single, mighty gateway, even the praise of the οne and only God, the universal King; and on either side of the Father's sovereign power he provideth the secondary beams of the light of Christ and the Ηoly Spirit. Αs to the rest, throughout the whole house he showeth in an abundant and much varied manner the clearness and splendour of the truth that is in each one, in that everywhere and from every source he hath included the living and firmly set and

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well-wrought stones of men's souls. Thus he builded the great and royal house composed of all, bright and full of light both within and without; for not alone soul and mind, but even their body had been made glorious with the many-blossomed adornment οf chastity and sobriety.

“Νow there are also in this fane thrones and countless benches and seats, as manv as are the souls on which the gifts of the divine Spirit find their restingplace; such as long ago appeared to the sacred Apostles and those that were with them, to whom there were manifested tongues parting asunder, like as of fire ; and it sat upon each one of them. But while in the ruler of all, as is right, the entire Christ hath taken Ηis seat, in those who have the second place after him [this bounty] is proportioned to each one's capacity, by gifts of the power of Christ and of the Ηoly Ghost. Αnd the souls of some might be the seats even of angels, of of those to whom the instruction and guarding of each several person hath been committed. But as to the reverend, mighty and unique altar, what might it be save the spotless holy of holies of the common priest of all ? 1 Standing beside it on the right hand the great High Ρriest of the universe, even Jesus, the only-begotten of receiveth with joyful countenance and uptunrned hands the sweet-smelling incense from all, and bloodless and immaterial sacrifices offered in prayer, and sendeth them on their way to the heavenly Father and God of the universe; Whom He Himself first adoreth and alone rendereth to His Father the honour that is due; after which Ηe also beseecheth [*](typifies the spiritual sanctuary (i.e. the soul) of Jesus Christ.)

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Him to remain favourable and propitious toward us all for ever.

“Such is the great temple which the Word, the great Creator of the universe, hath builded throughout the whole world beneath the sun, forming again this spiritual image upon earth of those vaults beyond the vaults of heaven; so that by the whole creation and by the rational, living creatures upon earth His Father might be honoured and revered. But as for the region above the heavens and the models there of things on this earth, and the Jerusalem that is above, as it is called, and the mount Ζion the heavenly mount, and the supramundane city of the living God, in which innumerable hosts of angels in general assembly and the church οf the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven honour their Maker and the Sonereign of the universe, proclaiming Ηis praises in unutterable words of which we cannot conceive: these no mortal man can worthily hymn, for in truth eye saw not, and ear heard not, nor did there enter into the heart of man those same things which God prepared for them that love Ηim. Of these things now in part deemed worthy, let us all together, men with women and children, small and great, with one spirit and one soul, never cease to praise and acclaim Him who is the Αuthor of so great blessings to us ; who is very merciful to all our iniquities, who healeth all our diseases, who redeemeth our life from destruction, who crowneth us with mercy and pities, who satisfieth our desire with good things; for Ηe hath not dealt with us after our sins, nor rewarded us after

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our iniquities; for as far as the east is from the west, far hath Ηe removed οur iniquities from us. Like a father pitieth his sons, so the Lord pitied them t fear Him.

‘‘Let us rekindle the memories οf these things both now and for all time hereafter; yea, and let us keep our minds night and day, through every and, one might say, in every breath, the Αuthor the present assembly, and this happy and most lorious day, even the Ruler of the assembly Himself; let us cherish and revere Him with the whole wer οf our soul; and now let us rise and beseech in loud accents, as befitteth our earnest desire, at at He would shelter and preserve us to the end in is fold, and award us that eternal peace, unbroken undisturbed, which cometh cometh from Him, in Christ esus our Saviour, through whom to Him be glory for er and ever. ”

V. But come, let us now quote also the translations made from the Latin of the imperial ordinances of nstantine and Licinus.

Copy of Imperial Ordinances translated from the Latin tongue.1

In our watchfulness in days gone by that freedom f worship should not be denied, but that each οne rding to his mind and purpose should have uthority given him to care for divine things in the [*](the people οf his pronince. It is probable that at Milan, in 313 (ix. 11.9), Constantine and Licinius drew up a norm οf ctions to governors which might be copied, with perhaps e variations in detail, and sent to the various proninces. ne redaction οf that norm was translated by Eusebius, other was transcribed by Lactantius (De Mortibus Perm 48).)

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way that pleased him best, we had given orders that th to the Christians [and to all others liberty should allowed]1 to keep to the faith of their οwn sect d worship. But inasmuch as many and various conitions2 seemed clearly to have been added in that reipt, in which such rights were conceded to the same rsons, it may be that perchanee some of them were ortly afterwards repelled from such observance.

“ When I Constantine Αugustus and I Lincinius gustus had come under happy auspices to Milan, d discussed all matters that concemed the public vantage and good, among the other things that eemed to be of benefit to the many 3—or rather, first and foremost — we resolved to make sueh decrees should secure respect and reverenee for the Deity Deity ; namely, to grant both to the Christians and to all free choice of following whatever form οf worship ey pleased, to the intent that all the dirine and eavenly powers that be might be favourable to us d all those living under our authority. Therefore with sound and most upright reasoning we resolved this 4 counsel : that authority be refused to no οne homsoever to follow and choose the observanee or rm of worship that Christians use, and that authority e granted to each one to give his mind to that form f worship which he deems sritable to himself, to e intent that the Dininity 5 . . . may in all things ord us his wonted care and generosity. It was omitting to send a rescript that this is οur pleasure, in er that when those conditions had altogether been [*](3 Lat. pluribus hominibus ; the Gk. has ἐν πολλοῖς ἅπασιν luribus omnibus). 4 Omitting ἡμετέραν, with the Latin. 5 The Latin adds “ cuius religioni liberis mentibus obsequiur.” )

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moved, which were contained in our former letters nt to thy Devotedness, concerning the Christians, οse things also which seemed to be wholly unfortute and foreign to our clemency might be removed, d that now each one of those who were possessed the same purpose—namely, to observe istians’ form οf worship—should ry thing, freely and simply, without any hindrance. ich things we have resolved, to signify in the est manner to thy Carefulness, to the intent that u mayest know that we have granted to these e Christians free and unrestricted authority to erve their own form of worship. Αnd when thou rceivest that this has been granted unrestrictedly them by us, thy Devotedness will understand at authority has been given to others also, who h to follow their own observance and form of rship—a thing clearly suited to the our times—so that each one may have choose and observe whatever form he pleases. is has been done by us, to the intent that we would not seem to have detraeted in any way from y rith 2 or form of worship.

“Αnd this, moreover, with special regard to the istians, we resolve: That their places, at which was their former wont to assemble, coneerning ich also in the former letter dispatched to thy evotedness a definite ordinance 3 had been formerly d down, if any should appear to have bought them ther from our treasury οr from any οther source — at these they should restore to these same ristians without payment οr any demand for compensation. [*](3 Lat. certa forma. Eusebius has τύπος ἕτερος, as if he had cetera in the Latin. )

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Setting aside all negligence and doubtfulness; and if any chanee to have received them by girt, that they should restore them them all speed to these same Christians: prorided that if either those who have purchased these same place or those who have received them by gift request aught of our generosity, let them approach the prefect of the district,1 to the intent that through our Kindness thought may be taken for them also. Αll which things must be handed over to the corporation of the Christians by thy zealous care immediately and without delay.

“Αnd inasmuch as these same Christians had not only those places at whieh it was their wont to assemble, but also are known to have had Other, belonging not to indiniduals among them, but to the lawful property of their corporation, that is, of the Christians, all these, under the provisions of the law set forth above, thou wilt give orders to be restored without any question whatsoever to these same Christians, that is, to their corporation and assembly; provided always, of course, a aforesaid, that those persons who restoie the same without compensation, as we have mentioned above, may look for indemnification, as far as they are concerned, from our generosity.

“In all these things thou Shouldest use all the diligence in thy power for the above-mentioned corporation of the Christians, that this our command may be fulfilled with all speed, so that in this also, through our kindness, thought may be taken for the common and publie peace. For by this method, as we have also said before, the divine [*](1 Omitting the gloss δικάζοντι. )

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care for us, which we have already experienced in many matters, will remain stedfast1 . . . continually. Αnd that the form which this our enactment and generosity takes may be brought to the knowledge οf all, it is fitting that this which we have written be set forth by thy order and published everywhere, and brought to the knowledge of all, to the intent that the enactment which embodies this our gnerosity may escape the notice οf no οne.’’

Copy of another Imperial Ordinance which he also made, indicating that the bounty had been granted to the Catholic Church alone.

‘‘Greeting, Anulinus, our most honoured Sir. It is the custom of οur benevolence, that we will that whatsoever appertains by right to another should not only not suffer harm, but even be restored, most honoured Anulinus. Wherefore we will that, when thou receivest this lerter, if aught of those things that belonged to the catholic Church 2 of the Christians in any city, or even in other plaees, be now in the possession either of citizens or οf any οthers: these thou shouldest cause to be restored forthwith to these same churches, inasmueh as it has been our determination that those things which these same churches possessed formerly should be restored to them as their right. Since, therefore, thy Devotedness perceives that the order of this our command is most explicit, do thy diligence that [*](2 Eusebius (see heading) took this to mean the Catholic Church as opposed to the Donatist schismatics; but this is very imrobable. The phrase refcrs to the Church in Africa as it was before the persecution and before the schism. )

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all things, whether gardens or buildings or whatsover belonged to these same churches by right, restored to them with all speed; so that we may learn that thou hast yielded the most careful obedience to this our order. Fare thee well, Anulinus, οur most honoured and esteemed Sir.”

Copy of an Imperial Letter, in which he commands holding of a Synod of bishops at Rome οn behalf of the union and concord of the churches.

“Constantine Augustus to Miltiades bishop of the , and to Mark. Inasmuch as documents of such a nature have been sent to me in numbers by Anulinus, the right honourable proconsul of Africa, m which it appears that Caecilian,1 the bishop of the ity οf the Carthaginians, is called to aecount οn many charges by some of his colleagues in Africa; d inasmuch as it seems to me to be a very serious tter that in those prorinces, which Dinine Pronience has chosen to entrust to my Denotedness, and where there is a great number of people, the ultitude should be found pursring the worse course f action, splitting up, as it were, and the bishops at ariance mnong themselves: it seemed good to me t Caecilian himself, with ten bishops, who seem call him to account, and such ten others as he ay deem necessary to his suit, should set sail for me, that there a hearing may be granted him in the presence of yourselves, and moreover οf Reticius d Maternus and Marinus also, your colleagues aditor, i.e. had surrendered up the Scriptures to the pagan [*](thorities. Hence they held that Caecilian's consecration as invalid; and by appointing a bishop of their own in his began what is known as the Donatist schism. )

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(whom I have ordered to hasten to Rome for this purpose), in such a manner as ye may perceive to be in accordance vith the most saered law. Nevertheless, that ye may have the fullest knowledge of all these same matters, I have subjoined to my letter copies οf the documents that were sent to me by Anulinus, and have dispatehed them to your afore said colleagues. Which when your Firmness reads, he will gauge by what method the most eareful investigation can be made of the above-mentioned suit, and a just deeision arrived at; since it does not escape the notice of your Carefulness that the respect which I pay to the lawful Catholic Church is so great, that it is my wish that ye should leave no schism whatsoever or division in any plaee. Μay the divinity of the great God preserve 1 you Safely for many years, most honoured Sirs.2’’

Copy of an Imperial Letter, in which he gives orders for the holding of a second Synod for the purpose of removing all dinision among the bishops.

“Constantine Αugustus to Chrestus bishop of the Syracusans. Already on a former occasion, when some in a base and perverse manner began to create divisions with regard to the worship of the holy and heavenly Ρower and the Catholic religion, in my desire to cut short such dissensions among them, I had given orders to the effect that certain bishops should be sent from Gaul, nay further, that the opposing parties, who were contending stubbornly [*]( 2 Gk. “Sir’’; but the Lat. correctly gives the plural. The Letter, hovever. seems to have been addressed principally to Miltiades : nothing is known of Mark, who is associated with him in the opening sentence. )

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and persistently together, should be sunnnoned from Africa; that so, in the presence also of the bishop of Rome, this question which appeared to have been raised might through their comming receive a right solution by means οf a careful examination in every particular. But since, as it happens, some, forgetful both of their own salvation and the reverence they owe to their most holy religion, even now do not cease to perpetuate their private enmities, being unwilling to conform to the judgement already passed, affirming that after all it was a few persons who gave their opinions and decisions, or that they were in a hurry psss judgement very speedily and sharply without having first accurately examined all those matters that ought to have been investigated; and since, as a result of all this, it has come to pass that even those very persons, who ought to be οf οne mind in brotherly concord, are separate from each other in a disgraceful, nay rather in an abominable, fashion, and give to those men whose souls are strangers to this most holy religion to scoff—wherefore it became incumbent upon me to provide that that which ought to have ceased by voluntary agreement, after the judgement akeady passed, may even now, if possible, be ended by the presence οf many persons. Inasmuch, therefore, as we have commanded that very many bishops from various and numberless places should assemble at the city of Arles by the Kalends of Αugust, we have thought it d to write to thee aho, that thou shouldest procure m the right honourable Latronianus, the “corrector1” οf Sicily, a public vehicle, and joining to thy [*](1 In the fourth century this was the title of governors of certain provinces. )
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company two οthers οf those of the second rank,1 whomsoever thou thyself mayest decide to choose, and, moreover, taking with you three servants who shall be able to artend upon you οn the way, do thou be present at the above-mentioned place by that same day; so that both by thy Firmness and by the unanimous wisdom of the others assembled, this quarrel also (which hitherto, by reason of certain disgraceful contentions, has maintained a miserable existence), when all has been heard that will be said those who are now at variance among themselves, whom likewise we have commanded to be present, may, if οnIy tardily, give place to a due state οf religion and faith and brotherly coneord. May the ighty God preserve thec in good health for many years.”

VI. Copy of an Imperial Letter in which grants of money are made to the churches.

“ Constantine Augustus to Caecilian bishop of Carthage. Forasmuch as it has been our pleasure in all provinces, namely the African, the Numidian and the Mauretanian, that somewhat be contributed for expenses to certrin specified ministers of the lawful and most holy Catholic religion, I have dispatched a letter to Ursus, the most distinguished finance minister οf Africa, and have notified to him that he be careful to pay οver to thy Firmness three thousand folles.2 Do thou therefore, when thou shalt secure delivery of the aforesaid sum of money, give orders that this money be distributed among all the above-mentioned persons in accordance with the schedule [*](2 The follis was originally a bag of samll coins, but after-wards came to denote a coin itseIf, the double denarius.)

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sent to thee by Hosius. But if, after all, thou shalt find that there is aught lacking for the fulfilment of this my purpose in respect of them all, thou shouldest ask without doubting whatsoever thou findest to be necessary from Heraclides our procurator fiscal. For indeed when he was here I gave him orders that if thy Firmness should ask any money from him, he should be careful to pay it over without any scruple. Αnd since I have learnt that certain persons of unstable mind are desirous of turning aside the laity of the most holy and Catholic Church by some vile method of seduction, know that I have given such commands to Anulinus, the proconsul, and moreover to Patricius, the Vicar of the Prefects,1 when they were here, that they should give due attention in all other matters and especially in this, and not suffer such an occurrence to be overlooked; therefore if thou observest any such men continuing in this madness, do not thou hesitate to go to the above-mentioned judges and bring this matter before them, so that (as I commanded them when they were here) they may turn these people from their error. May the divinity οf the great God preserve thee for many years.”