CΟΝTEΝTS OF BΟΟΚ IV
The contents of the fourth book of the History of the Church is as follows:
Ι. Who were the bishops of Rome and Alexandria in the reign of Trajan.
II. What the Jews suffered in his time.
III. The apologistes for Christianity in the time of Ηadrian.
ΙV. The bishops of Rome and Alexandria in his time.
V. The bishops of Jerusalem, beginning from the Saviour down to the time mentioned.
VI. The last siege of the Jews under Hadrian.
VII. Who were the leaders of knowlege, falsely so-called, at that rime.
VIII. Who are the writers fo the church.
IX. Αletter of Hadrian to the effect that we must not be persecuted without being tried.
X. Who were thc bishops of Rome and Alexandria in the reign of Antoninus.
XI. Oh the leaders οf heresy in their times.
XII. On the apology of Justin to Antoninus.
XIII. Α letter of Antoninus to the Council of Asia On Our religion.
XIV. The story of Polycarp who had known the apostle.
XV. How in the time of Verus Polycarp with others was martyred in the city os Smyrna.
XVI. How Justin the philosopher was martyred in the city of Rome as an ambassador for the word of Christ.
XVII. On the martyrs whom Justin mentions in his own writings.
XVIII. What writings of Justin have come down to us.
XIX. Who were the leaders of the churcbes of Rome and Alexandria in the reign of Verus.
XX. Who were the bishops Of Antioch.
XXI. Οn tbe ecclesiastical writers who were famous in their time.
XXII. On Hegesippus and vbat he relates.
XXIII. Οn Dionysius, the bishop of Corinth, and the letters which he wrote.
XXIV. Οn Theophilus, hishop of Antioch.
XXV. Οn Philip and Modestus.
XXVI. Οn Melito and the statements which he makes.
XXVII. Οn Apolinarius.
XXVIII. On Musanus.
XXIX. Οn the heresy of Tatian.
XXX. Οn Bardesanes the Syrian and his extant books.
I. ABOUT the tweKth y ear of the reign of Trajan 1 the bishop 2 of the ffiocese of Alexandria, whom we men- tioned a little earlier, passed away, and Primus, the fourth from the Apostles, received the charge of those in that place. Αt this time, too, at Rome Alexander, when Evarestus had completed his eighth year, was the Rfth to succeed Feter and Paul, and took up the bishopric.
II. While the teaching of our Saviour and the church were nourishing daily and moving on to further progress the tragedy of the Jews was reaching the climax of successive woes. Ιn the course of the eighteenth year 3 οf the reign of the Emperor a rebellion of the Jews again broke out and destroyed a great multitude of them. For both in Alexandria and in the rest of Egypt and especially in Cyrene, as though they had been seized by some terrible spirit of rebellion, they rushed into sedition against their Greek fellow clblens, and increasing the seope of the rebellion in the following year started a great war while Lupus was governor of all Egypt. 4 In the nrst engagement they happened to overcome [*](1 A. D. 109. 2 Cerdon, cf. iii. 21. 3 A. D. 115. 4 Cf. Cassius, lxviii. 32 and lxix. 12 f.)
the Greeks, who fled to Alexandria and captured and killed the Jews in the city, but though thus losing the help of the townsmen, the Jews of Cyrene continued to plunder the countr y of Egypt and to ravage the districts in it under their leader Lucuas. The Emperor sent against them Marcius Turbo with land and sea forces including eavalry. Ηe waged war vigorously against them in many bartleS for a considerable time and killed many thousands of Jews, not οnly those of Cyrene but alSo those of Εgypt who had rallied to Lucuas, 1 their king. The Εmperor suspected that the Jews in Mesopotamia wollld also attack the inhabitants and ordered Lusius Quietus to clean them out of the province. Ηe organized a force and murdered a great multitude of the Jews there, and for this reform was appointed governor of Judaea by the Εmperοr. The Greek authors 2 who chronicle the same period have related this narrative in these very words.
III. When Trajan had reigned for nineteen and a half years Aelius Hadrian succeeded 3 to the sovereignty To him Quadratus addressed a treatise, composing a defence for our religion because some wicked men were trying to trouble the Christians. It is still extant among many of the brethren and we have a copy ourselves. From it can be seen the clear proof οf his intellect and apostle orthodoxy. Ηe shows his early date by what he says as follows [*](1 Dio Cassius (lxviii. 32) gives his name as Andreas.) [*](2 Εxcept for Dio Cassius these cannot be identffied.) [*](3 A.D. 117.)
in his own words : “But the works of our sariour werc always present, for they were true, those who were cured, those who rose from the dead, who not merely appeared as cured and risen, but were constantly present, not only wffihlle the sariour was living, but even for some time after he had gone, so that some of them surrived even till our own ” such was he. Aristides too, a man of faith and devoted to our religion, has, hke Quadratus, left behind a defence of the faith addressed to Hadrian. His writing, too, is still preserved hy many.1
IV. In the tffihlrd year οf the same reign 2 Alexander, the bishop of the Romans, ffied after eompleting the tenth year of his ministry; Xystus was his successor. Αnd at the same time, in the diocese of the Alexandrians, Justus succeeded Primus, who died in the twelfth year of his rule.
v. 1 have not found any written statement of the dates of the bishops in Jerusalem, for tradition says that they were extremely short-lived, but 1 have gathered from documents this much —that up to the siege of the Jews by Ηadrian the successions οf bishops were fifteen in number. It is said that they were all Ηebrews by origin who had nobly accepted the knowledge of Christ, so that they were counted worthy even of the episcopal ministry by those who had the power to judge such questions. For their whole church at that time consisted of Ηebrews who [*](1 The Syriac text was dicovered by J. Rendel Harris οn Mt. sinai and published by him in Texts and Studies, i. 1. see Introduction p. xlix.) [*](2 A.D. 120.)
had continued Christian from the Apostles down to the siege at the time when the Jews again rebelled from the Romans and were beaten in in a great war. since the Jewiril bishops then ceased, it is now necessary to give their names from the beginning. The first then was James who was called the Lord's brother, arld after him Simeon was the second. The third was Justus, Zacchaeus was the fourth, Tobias the fifth, the sixth Benjamin, the seventh John, the eighth Mattias, the ninth Philip, the telrth Seneca, the eleventh Justus, the twelfth Levi, the thirteenth Ephres, the fourteenth Joseph, and last of all the fifteenth Judas. such were the bishops in tbe crty of Jerusalem, from the Apostles down to the time mentioned, and riley were all Jews. now during the Llvelfth year of the reign of Hadrian, Telesphorus, the Seventh from the Apostles, suceeeded Xystus who had completed ten years in the bishopric of the Romalns, and one year and some months later Eumemes suceeeded to the government of tbe diocese or Alexandria as the sixth bishop, when his predecessor had completed eleven years.
VI. The rebellion of the Jews 1 once more progressed in character and extent, and Rufus, the governor of Judaea, when military aid had been sent him by the Emperor, moved out against them, treating their madness without mercy. He destroyed in heaps thousands of men, women, and children, and, under the law of war, enslaved their land. The Jews were at rilat time led by a certain Bar Chochebas, 2 which means “star,” a man who was [*](1 Cf. Dio Cassius, lxix. 12–14.) [*](2 Literall v “son of a star.” with a prbable reference to Numbers xxiv. 17. After his defeat the Jews called him Bar Choziba “son of a lie.”)
murderous and a bandit, but relied on his name, as if dealing with slaves, and claimed to be a luminary who had come down to them from heaven and was magically enligbtening those who were in misery. The War reaehed itS height in the eighteenth year of the reign of Hadrian in Beththera, 1 which was a strong eitadel not very rar from Jerusalem; the siege lasted a long time before the rebels were driven to final destruction by famine and thirst and the instigator of their madness paid the penalty he deserved. Hadrian then commanded that by a legal decree and ordinances the whole nation should be absolutely prevented from entering from theneeforth even the distriet round Jerusalem, So that not eVen from a distance couhl lt see it ancestral home. Ariston of Pella tells the story. 2 Thus when the city came to be bereft of the natlon of the Jews, and its ancient inhabitants had completely perished, it was colonized by foreigners, and the Roman city which afterwards arose changed its name, and in honour of the reigning emperor Αelius Hadrian was ealled Aelia. The chureh, too, in it was composed of Gentiles, and after the Jewish bishops the first who was appointed to minister to those there was Marcus.
VII. Like brilliant lamps the churches were noW shining throughout the World, and Faith in our saViour and Lord Jesus Christ was flourishing among all mankind, when the devil who hates what is good, as the enemy of truth, ever most hostile to man's salvation, turned all his devices against the church. [*](1 It has not been identified.) [*](2 The book is not extand.)
Formerly he had used persecutions from without as his weapon against her, but now that he was excluded from this he employed wicked men and sorcerers, like baleful weapons and ministers of destruction against the soul, and eonducted his campaign by other plotting by every means that sorcerers and deeeivers might assume the same name as our religion and at οne time lead to the depth of destruction those οf the faithful whom they caught, and at others, by the deeds whieh thev undertook, might turn away from the path to the saving word those who were ignorant of the faith. Thus from Menander, whom we have already mentioned as the successor οf Simon, there proceeded a certain snakelike power with two mouths and double head, and established the leaders of two heresies, Saturninus, an Antionchian by race, and Basilides of Αlexandria. The first established schools of impious heresy syria, the latter in Εgypt. Irenaeus makes it plain that Saturninus uttered for the most part the same falsehoods as Menander, but Basilides, under the pretext of secret doctrine, Stretehed fancy infinitely far, fabricating monstrous mythS for his impious heresy. Now while mort of the orthodox at that time were struggling for the truth, and fighting with great eloquence 1 for the glory of the Apostles and of the Church, some also by their writings provided for their successors methods of defence against the heresies which have been mentioned. Of these a most powerful refutation of Basilides has reached us from Agrippa Castor, a most famous [*](1 The Greek might naturally mean “logically,” but the antithesis with written defences shows what is intended.) [*](2 Not extant.)
writer of that time, revealing the cleverness of the man's deception. Ιn expounding his mysteries he SayS that he compiled twenty-four books on the gospel, and that he named his own prophets Bar Cabbas and Bar Coph, 1 and that he set up some others for himself vho bad never existed, but that he invented barbarous names for them to astonish those who vere inriuenced by such things. Ηe taught that there vas no harm in eating things offered to idols, or in light-heartedly denying the faith in times of persecution. Like Pythagoras he enjoined those who came to him to keep silence for five years. The same writer tells other similar things about Basilides, and offers a magnificent refutation of the error of the heresy described. Irenaeus also writes that Carpocrates was a contemporary of these, the father of another herey which was called that of the Gnoistics. These did not, like Barilides, derire to transmit the magie of Simon secreriy but Openly, a though it was some great thing, speaking almost with awe of their magieal ceremonies, of love charms, of the bringers of dreams and familiar spirits, and of other similar performances. In accordance wtih this they teach that those who purpose coming to initiation in their mysteries, or ratber in their obscenities, must perform all the shocking deeds beeause in no other way can they escape the “rulers of the ” as they would say, except by fulfilling to all of them what was necessary through their mysteries. By using these ministers the demon who rejoices in evil accomplished the piteous enslavement [*](1 Nothing is known of these persons, but for a suggested connexion of Gnostic prophecy with Zoroastrian writings see Hort's article on Barcabbas in the Dictionary of Christian Biography.)
to perdition of those who were thus deceived by them, and brought much weight of discredit upon the divine word among the unbelieving Gentiles, because the report Whieh started from them was scattered calumniously on the whole race Of Christians. It was especially in this way that it came to pass that a blasphemous and wicked suspicion concerning us was spread among the heathen of those days, to the effect that we practised unspeakable incest with mothers and sisters and took part in wicked food. 1 Yet this did not long succeed, for the truth vindicated itself and as time went on shone ever more brighriy. For by its power the machinations of its enemie were refuted; though new heresies were invented one after another, the earlier ones flowed into strange multiple and multifarious forms and perished in different ways at different times. But the brightness of the universal and only true church proceeded to increase in greatness, for it ever held to the same points in the same way, and radiated forth to all the race οf Greeks and barbarians the reVerent, sincere, and free nature, and the sobriety and purity of the divine teaching as to conduct and thought. Thus with the lapse of time the calumnies against the whole teaching were extinguished, and our doetrine remained as the only one which had power among all and was admitted to excel in its godliness and sobriety, 2 and its divine and wise doctrines. So that no one has daied to [*](2 These two words are peculiarly difficult to translate. The brst means the quality which demands reverence from others. The second is the moderation. self-restraint, and sobriety which are essential to a good life. There is no word in English which adequately translates either.)
continuue the base implications of calumny against our faith, such as those who were opposed to us were formerly accustomed to use.
Nevertheless, at the time spoken of, the truth again brought forward for itself more champions Who campaigned against the godless heresies not only by unwritten arguments but also in written demonstrations.
VIII. Among these Hegesippus was famous and of his words we have already made much use, for from his traffition we have quoted details as to the apostolic age. Ηe collected his material 1 in hve books, giving in the simplest style of writing the unerring tradition of the apostolic preaching. Ηe indicates the time in which he flourished by writing thus about those who had made idols : “To them they made cenotaphs and shrines until now, and among them is Antinous, a slave of the Emperor Hadrian, in whose honour the Antinoian games are held, though he was our contemporary. For he also built a city called after Antious, and instituted prophets for ” Αt the same time too, Justm; a genuine lover of true philosophy, was still continuing to practise the learning of the Greeks. And he also himself indicates this period in his Apology to Antoninus by writing thus, “And we thought it not out of place to mention at this point Antinous of the present day whom all were intimidated to worship as a god, though they knew his nature and origin.”[*](2 Α ccnotaph is a monument in the form of a tomb but with no body in it.)[*](3 The sentence seems to break off in the middle, but the subject of the verb, though not expressed, is doubtless Hadrian.)
The same writer mentions the war of that time against the Jews and makes this observation, “For in the present Jewish war it was only Christians whom nar Chocheba, the leader of the rebellion of the Jews, commanded to be punished severely, if they did not deny Jesus as the Messiah and blaspheme him.”
In the same book he shows that his conversion from Greek philosophy to true religion did not take place irrationally, but as an act of deliberate judgment; for he writes thus : “For I myself, while I was rejoicing in the teaching of Plato, heard the Christians abused. But 1 saw that they were afraid neither of death, nor οf anything usually thought feadul, and I considered it was impossible that they were living in wickedness and liberinism. For what libertine or incontinent person, or οne who ands good in the eating of human flesh, could greet death, that it might take away all his lusts, and would not try to prolong by all means his present life and to avoid the notice οf the rulers, and not give himself up to be murdered ?”
Moreover, the same writer relates that Hadrian received a dispatch in favour of the Christians from Serennius Graninaus, a most distinguished governor, to the effect that it was not just to put them to death, without accusation or trial, to appease popular clamour, and that he wrote an answer to Minucius Fundanus, proconsul of Asia, οrdering him to try no one without inffictment and reasonable accusation, and Justin appends a copy of the letter, preserring the original Latin 1 as he had it, and prefixing these [*](1 This is not so in the extant Ms. οf Justin, which has replaced the Latin by the Greek οf Eusebius. The authem ticity οf the document has been warmly disputed, and there is not yct any agreement οn the point among critics.)
remarks: “Though we might have begged you to οrder trials to be held, as we desired, οn the strength of a letter from the great and glorious Emperor Hadrian, we preferrred to rest our request not on the command of Ηadrian but on our knowledge that we are making a righteous request. However, we also append a copy of the letter of Hadrian, that you may know that we are speaking the truth on this point, and here it is.”
The author quoted then appends the Latin rescript itself, but we have translated it to the best of our power into Greek as follows :
ΙX. “To Minucius Fundanus. I reeeived a letter written to me from his Excellency Serennius Granianus, your predeeessor. 1 think that the matter ought not to remain without inquiry, to prevent men from being harassed or helping the rascality of informers. If then the provincials can make out a clear case οn these lines against the Christians so as to plead it in open court, let them be influenced by this alone and not by opinions or mere outeries. For it is far more correct if anyone wishes to make an accusation for you to examine this point. If then anyone accuses them, and shows that they are acting illegally, deeide the point according to the nature of the offence, but by Hercules, if anyone brings the matter forward for the purpose of blackmail, investigate gate strenuously and be careful to inffict penalties adequate to the ” 1 Such was the rescript of Hadrian.[*](l The Latin of RuRnus (see Introduction, p. xxviii) may be the original: “in hunc pro sui nequitia supplieiis severioribus oribus vindices”.)
X. After twenty-one years Hadrian paid the debt of nature, aud Antoninus, called Pius, received the sovereignty of ROnle. In his first year Telesphorus passed away in the eleventh year of his ministry, and Hyginus received the lot of the bishopric of the Romans. Irenaeus relates that Telesphorus gained renown in his death by martyrdom, and states in the same place that in the time of Hyginus, the aforementioned bishop of Rome, Valentinus, the founder of a special heresy, and Cerdo, the founder of the Marcionite error, were both famous in Rome Ηe writes thus thus:
XI. “Valentinus came to Rome in the time of Hyginus, but he flourished under pius, and remained until Anicetus, and Cerdo, who before the time of Marcion, in the days of Hyginus, the ninth bishop, had cOme tO the church and confessed, went on in the same way, sometimes teaching heresy, sometimes confesslng again, and somerimes convicted by his evil teaching and separated from the assembly of the ” This he says in the third book against the heresies. Moreover, in the first book he makes the following statement about Cerdo: “Α certain Cerdo had come originally from the circle of Simon and settled in Rome in the time of Hyginus, who held the ninth plaee in the apostolic succession from the apostles. Ηe tauglrt that the God preached by the Law and the Prophets was not the father of our Lord Jesus Christ, for the one was known, the other unknown, the one vas righteous and the other
good. Marcion οf Pontus succeeded him and increased the school, blaspheming unblushingly.”
The same Irenaues powerfully exposed the bottomless pit οf the system of Valentinus with its many errors, and unbared his secret and latent wickedness while he was lurking like a reptile. Furthermore he says that there was in their time 1 another named Mareus, most experieneed in the magie arts, and he writes of his initiations, whieh could not initiate, and of his foul mysteriesp expounffing them in these words : “Some of them conStruct a bride-ehamber, and celebrate a mystery with certain invocations on their initiate, and say that what they do is a spiritual marriage, according to the likeness of the unions above ; others bring them to water and baptize them with this invocation, ‘To the name of the unknown Father of the universe, to Truth, the mother of all things, to him who descended into ’ and others invoke Ηebrew words in order more fully to amaze the initiate.”
Αfter the fourth year of his episeopate Hyginus died and Ρius undertook the ministry of Rome. Ιn Αlexandria Marcus was appointed after Εumenes had completed thirteen years, and when Μarcus rerted from the ministry after ten years, Celadion received the ministry of the ehurch of the Alexandria. In the city of the Romans Ρius paSSed away in the Rfteenth year of his ministry and Anicetus presided over those there. In his time [*](l Apparently “in the time of Valentinus and Cerdo.”) [*](2 The play οn the words in the Greek is untranslahble.)
Hegesippus states that he stayed in Rome and remained there until the episcopate of Eleutherus. Ιn their time Justin vas at the height of his fame; in the garb or philosopher he served as ambassador of the word of God and contended in his writings for the faith. Ηe wrote a treatise against Marcion and mentions that at the time he was writing the heretic was ahve and nororious. Ηe speaks thus : “Αnd there was a certain Μarcion of Pontus who even now is still teaching those who believe him to think that there is another God greater than the creator. Throughout the Whole race of men by the instigation of demons he has made many to speak blasphemously and to deny that the Maker of this universe is the Father of Christ, and to confess that there is another greater than He. Αll those who begin from them, as we said, are called Christians just as the name of philosophy is common to philosophers though their doctrines ” Ηe goes on to say, “Αnd we have a trearise against all the heresies which have arisen which we will give to any who wish to study it.”
The same Justin laboured powerfully against the Oentiles, and addressed other arguments, affording a defence for our faith, to the Emperor Antoninus, called Ρius, and to the senate of the Romans, for he was living in Rome. In his Apology he explains his position and origin as follows:
XII. “To the Emperor Titus Aelius Hadrian Antoninus Ρius. Caesar Augustus, and to Verissimus, his son the philosopher,
and to Lucius, the lover of instruction, the son by nature of the philosopher-emperor, and by adoption οf Pius, and to the holy senate and to the whole people of Rome, on behalf of those men οf every race who are unjustly hated and abused, I, Justin, the son of Priscus, the son of Baccheius, of Flavia Neapolis in Palestinian syria, mysW a christian, offer an address and enteaty.”
The same Εmperοr was entreated by οther Αsiatic christians who had suffered all manner of injury from the local population and he thought fit to send the following decree to the Council of Asia. 1
XIII. “The Εmperor Caesar Mareus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus Armenicus, Pontifex Maximus, Tribune for the nfteenth time, Consul for the third time, to Council of Asia, greeting. 2 I know that the gods aho take care that such men should not escape notice, for they would be far more likely to punish those who are unwilling to worship them than you are. But you drive them into tumult, for you con- nrm them in the opinion which they hold by accusing them as atheists, and they too when so accused might well prerer apparent 3 death rather than life for the sake of their οwn ood. wherefore they are also conquerors because they sacrffice their lives rather [*](2 The date indicated is between March 7 and Decembcr 9 Α. D. 161. This rescript is usually regarded as spurious, but Harnack, Texte und Untersuchungen xiii. 4, has tried to exlain it as a genuine document with Christian interpolations. Schwartz thinks it is a translation of a Latin forgery. It is found in cod. Paris. 450 after the Apology of Justin, and is there attributed to Antoninus Ρius when tribune for the 24th time, i.e. between Dec. 10, A.D. 160 and Mareh 7, A.D. 161.) [*](3 This translation would better suit τὸ δοκεῖν, but τῷ δοκεῖν may be a phrase qualifying τεθνάναι. Ιt is not improbable that it is a gloss.)
than οbey and do what you command. With regard to the carthquakes which have taken place and are still going on it is not οut of place to remind you that when they happen you are depressed, and so set up a comparison between our position and theirs. ney obtain increased confidence towards Ood, but you the whole of the time neglect the other gods and the worship of the immortal. 1 But when the Christians worship him you harry and persecute them to death. Αnd many οf the provincial governors mote formerly on behalf of such men to οur divine father, and he rephed that they were not to be interfered with unless they appeared to be plotting against the Roman government. Αnd to me aho many reported about such men, and to them I too replied consistently with my father's opinion. But if anyone Ρersist in taking action against any one of such persons, on the ground that he is so, let that one who is accused be released nom the charge, even if it appear that he is such, but the accuser shall be liable to penalty. Published at Ephesus in the Council of Αsia.”
Further testimony to these events is given by Mehto, the famous bishop of the church in Sarffis at that time, as is clear from what he says in the Apology which he made to the Emperor verus οn behalf οf οur faith.
XIV. During the time of the emperors referred to, while Anicetus was ruling the church of Rome, Irenaeus relates that Polycarp was still alive and came to Rome and conversed with Anicetus about [*](1 The tcxt as it sbnds in the Greek is hopeless. Possibly καθ’ ὂν ἀγνοεῖν δοκεῖτε have been displaced and refer to the “immortal” οr the emendation of καθ’ ὃν to κα θεὸν might he accepted.)
some difficulty as to the day of the Passover. The same writer tells another story about Polycarp which it is necessary to add to what has been said about him It runs as follows :
From the third book of Irenaeus against Heresies
“Αnd Ρolycarp also was not only instructed by apostles and conversed with many who had seen the Lord, but was also appointed bishop by apostles in Asia in the church in smyma. We also saw him in our childhood, for he lived a long time and extreme extreme old age passed from life, a splenffid and glorious martyr. Ηe conrtantly taught those things which he had leamt from the apostles, which also are the traffidItion of the church, which alone are true. To these facts all the churehes in Αsia bear witness, and the present successors of Ρolycarp, and he iS a far more trustworthy and reliable witness of the truth than valentinus and Marcion and the others who hold wrong opinions. Ιn the time οf Αnicetus he visited Rome and converted many of the abovementioned heretics to the church of God, preaching that the one and only truth which he had received from the apostles was that which is the tradition of the church. Αnd there are those who heard him tell that John the ffisciple of the Lord Went in Εphesus to bathe and seeing Cerinthus within, sprang out of the baths without bathing calling οut, ‘Let us ny lest the baths fall in, since Cerinthus, the enemy of
the truth, is ’ Αnd Ρolycarp himself when Marcion οnce met him and said, ‘Recognize us,’ answered, ‘I do, I recognize the Rrst-born of ’ such care ffid the aportles and their disciples take not even to join in conversation vith any of those who mutilate the truth, as Ρaul also said, ‘A man that is heretical after a first and second exhortation, refuse, knowing such a οne is perverted and sinneth, being self-condemned. ’ There is also a most powerful letter of ’s written to the Philippians, from which those who wish and care for their own salvation can learn both the character of his faith and the preaching of the ” so says Irenaeus. Moreover, Ρolycarp, in his above-mentioned lerter to the Philippians, which is still extant, has made some quotations from the first Epistle of Peter.1
Antoninus, called Pius, held the sovereignty for twenty-two years 2 and was succeeded by Mareus Aurelius Verus, also called Antoninus, his son, together with his brother Lucius.
XV. Αt this time3 Polycarp was consecrated by martyrdom when great persecutions again ffisturbed Αsia, and I think it most necessary to give in this history the account of his end, which is still extant in writing. The document purports to be from the ehureh of which he was the leader, and gives to the neighbouring [*](1 The references to 1 Peter in ’s Εpistle are: i. 3 = 1 Ρet. i. 8 ; ii. 1 = 1 Ρet. i. 13, 21 ; ii. 2 = 1 Ρet. iii. 9 v. 3 = 1 Ρet. ii. 11 ; vii. 2 = 1 Ρet. iv. 7; viii. 1 = 1 Ρet. ii. 24 22; x. 2 = l Ρet. ii. 12.) [*](2 Antoninus Ρius died Mareh 7, Α. D. 161. Μarcus Aurelius aud Lucius were two adopted sons.) [*](3 This seems to be a mistake. Ιt is almost certain that the death οf Ροlycarp was in Α. n. 156. See Studia Bliblica, ii. pp. 105 ff.)
dioeeses1 the following accolmt of what happened to him. “ The ehurch of God which sojourns in Smgrna, to the Church of God which sojourns in Philomelium,2 and to all the sojournings of the Ηoly Catholic Church in every place. Mercy, peace, and love of God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ be multiplied. We write to you, brethren, the story or the martyrs and of the blessed Polycarp, who put an end to the persecutiOn by his martyrdom as thought adding the seal.”
They then go on, before the narrative about Polycarp, to give the stOry of the other martyrs, deSeribing the constancy which they showed against torture, for they say that thOse who were Standlng around were amazed when they Saw that at one time they Were tOrn by Scourges dOwn to deepseated veins and arterieS, so that the hidden contents of the receSses Of their bodies, their entrails and organs, were exposed to sight. Αt another time they were stretched on seashells and on sharp points, were taken through all kinds of punishment and torture, and finally vere given to be eaten by wild beasts. They say that the noble Germanicus vas especially distinguished, being Strengthened by the grace of God to oVercOme the natural cowardice of the body for death. Even when the proconsul wished to dissuade him, urging his youth and entreating him as he was still just in the flower of his youth [*](2 In Phrygia, not far from Pisidian Antioch. This letter is usually called the Martyrdom of Polycarp. It ls published in LC.L., The Apostolic Fathers, vol. ii. pp. ii. pp. 309)
to have pity on himself, he did not hesitate, but took pains to drag the beast to himself, almost forcing him and provoking him in order that he might be the sooner free from an unjust and wicked life. Αt his glorious death the whole crowd was amazed at the God-loving martyr for his bravery, and at the courage οf the whole race of Christians, and began to howl out together, “ Kill the atheists ! Let Ρolycarp be sent ” When a great uproar arose at this cry, a certain native of Phrygia named Quintus, lately arrived from Ρhrygia, seeing the beasts and the other threats, was overeome in his mind and weakened and hnally abandoned his salvation. The nauative of the above-mentioned document showS that this man had rushed to the tribunal with the others in a headstrong but irreligious spirit ; but that nevertheless when he was conricted he gave manifest proofs to all that such men ought not to make foolhaffiy ventures which do not spring from religion. Such was the fate of these men. Vet the wonderful Polycarp, when he nrst heard this, remained undisturbed, keeping his mind steadfast and unmoved, and wished to Stay there in the city. But the urgency of his friends and their entreaty that he should go out persuaded him, and he departed to a farm not far from the city where he stayed with a few others, and night and day ffid nothing but persevere in prayers to the Lord. ln them he entreated and supplicated for peace, begging that it be given the churcheS throughout the world, for this was his invariable custom.
While he was praying, in a vision at night three days before his capture, he saw the pillow under his head suddenly flaming with fire and so destroyed, and when he woke up at this he at once interpreted what he had Seen to those present, all but foretelling the future and clearly announcing to his friends that in fire he must give up his life for Christ's While those who were seeking for him were pressing on with great zeal, he was again constrained by the affection and love of the brethren to move to another farm. Shortly after the pursuers came up and arrested two οf the slaves there. They tortured one οf them and were brought by him to the abode of Ροlycarp. They entered in the evening and found him lying in an upper chamber. It was possible for him to have moved thence to another house, but he was not willing and said, “ The Lord's will be done.” When he heard that they had come, So the story says, he went down and conversed with them with a bright and gentle countenance, so that those who did not know him before thought that they saw a marvel when they regarded his old age and his venerable and Steadfast behaviour, and they wondered that there should be such activity for the arrest οf an οld man of sueh charaeter. Ηe did not delay but immediately ordered a table to be set for them and invited them to partake of plentiful food, asking from them a single hour that he might pray unffisturbed. They gave him leave, and he arose and prayed, ffiled with the grace of the Lord, So that those who were present were astonished when they heard his prayer, and many of them alrcady began
to repent that so venerable and godlike an old man was going to be killed.
After this the document concerning him continues as follows1 : “ Νοw when he had at last finished prayer, after remembering all who had cver even come his way, both small and great, high and low, and the whole Catholic Church throughout the world, the hour came for departure, and they set him on an ass, and led him into the city, οn a ‘ great Sabbath day.’ 2 Αnd the poliee captrialn Ηerοd and his Νiketas mct him and removed him into the wagon, and sat by his side trying to persuade him and saying : ‘But what hann is it to say, “ Lord Caesar,” and offer sacrifice, and to be saved ? ’ But he at first did not answer them, but when they continued he said : ‘ I am not going to do what you counsel me.’ Αnd they gave up the attempt to persuade him, and bcgan to speak fiercely, and turned him out in such a huuy that in getting down from the wagon he scraped his shin ; and without tuming round, as though he had suffered nothing, he walked on promptly and quickly, and was taken to the arena, while the uproar in the arena was so great that no one could even be heard. Νow when Polycarp entered into the arena there came a voice from heaven : ‘ Be strong, Polycarp, and play the man.’ Αnd no one saw the speaker, but many οf our friends who were there heard the voice. Αnd when he was brought forward, there was a great uproar of those who heard that Polycarp had been arrested. Νext [*](2 The traditional date of Polysarp's martyrdom was 23. If so, “a great Sabbath” may mean the feast οf Purim οr it may mean the sabbath after the Ρassover. see C. Η. Turner in Stud. Bib. ii. pp. 105, aud Ε. Schwartz in Abhandl der k. Ges. der Wiss. zu Gött. viii. (1905) 6, pp. 125 ff.)
when he approached the proconsul asked him if he were Ροlycarp, and when he admitted it he tried to persuade him to deny, saying : ‘ Respect your age,’ and so forth, as thcy are accustomed to say : ‘ Swear hy the genius of Caesar, repent, say : “ Αway with the Αtheists ’’ ’ ; but Ροlycarp, with a stem countenance looked οn all the crowd in the arena, and waving his hand at them, he groaned and looked up to heaven and said : ‘ Αway with the Αtheists.’ But when the Governor pressed him and said : ‘ Take the oath and I will let you go, revile Christ, ’ Polycarp said : ‘ For eighty and six years have I becn his servant, and he has done me no wrong, and how can I blaspheme my King who saved me ? ’ nut when he persisted again, and said : ‘ Swear by the genius 1 of Caesar, ’ he said : ‘If you vainly suppose that I will swear by the genius of Caesar, as you say, and pretend that you are ignorant who 1am, listen plainly : I am a Christian. Αnd if you wish to leam the doctrine of Christianity fix a day and listen. ’ The proconsul said : ‘ Ρersuade the people.’ Αnd Ροlycarp said : ‘you I should held worthy οf ffiseussion, for we have been taught to render honour, as is meet, if it hurt us not, to princes and authorities appointed by God ; but as for those, I do not count them worthy that a defence should be made to them.’ Αnd the proconsul said : ‘I wild beasts, I will deliver you to them, unless you change your mind.’ Αnd he said : ‘ Call for for change of mind from better to worse is a change we may not make ; but it is good to change from eril to righteousness.’ Αnd he said again to him : him: [*]( 1 Literally “fortune” ; but the Greeks thus translated the Lationath, “per genium ” or “per genios ” which was introduced at the beginning οf the Empire.)
will cause you to be consumed by fire, if you despise the beasts, unless you repent.’ But Polycarp said ‘ You threaten with the fire that burns for a time, and is quickly quenched, for you do not know the fire which awaits the wicked in the judgement to come and in everlasting punishment. But why are you waiting? Come, do what you will.’ Αnd these and manv Other Words he was filled with courage and joy, and his faee was full of grace, so that it not Only did not fall with trouble at the things said to him, but that the proconsul, on the other hand, was astounded and sent his herald into the midst of the arena to announce three times : ‘Polycarp has confessed that he is a Christian.’ When this had been said by the herald, all the multitude of heathen and Jews living in Smgrna cried out with uncontrollable wrath and a loud Shout : ‘This is the teacher of Asia, the father of the Christians, the destroyer οf our Gods, who teaches many neither to offer saeiffice nor to worship.’ Αnd when they said this, they cried out and asked Philip the Asiarch to let loose a lion on Polycarp. But he said he could not legally do this, since he had closed the sports. Then they found it good to cry out with one mind that he should burn Polycarp alive, for the vision which had appeared to him on his pillow must be fulffiled, ben he saw it burning, while he was praying and he turned and said prophetically phetically to those of the faithful who were with him, ‘I murt be burnt alive.’ These things happened with so great speed, quicker than it takes to tell, and the crowd came together immediately, and prepared wood and faggots from the workshops and baths and the Jews were extremely zealous, as
is their custom, in assisting at this. Now when the fire was ready he put off all his clothes, and loosened his girdle and tried aho to take ὂπ his shoes, a thing he was not used to doing, because eaeh οf the faithful was always zealous, which of them might the more quickly toueh his flesh. For he had been treated with all respect because of his noble life, even before his οld age. Immeffiately, therefore, he was fastened to the instruments which had been prepared for the fire, but when they were going to nail him as well he said: ‘ Leave me thus, for Ηe who gives me power to endure the fire, will grant me to remain in the flames unmoved even without the security you will give by the nails.’ so they did not hail hut bound him, and he put his hands behind him and was hound, as a noble ram that is offered out of a great flock as a whole burnt offering acceptable to Almighty God; and he said : ‘O Father of thy beloved and blessed Child, Jesus Christ, through whom we have received full knowledge of thee, the God of angels and powers, and of all creation, and οf the whole family οf the righteous, who live before thee ! I bless thee, that Thou hast granted me this day and hour, that Ι may share, among the number οf the martyrs, in the cup οf thy Christ, for the Resurrection to everlasting life, both of soul and body in the immortality of the Ηοly Spirit. Αnd may 1, to-day be received among them bcfore Thee, as a rich and acceptable sacrifice, as Thou, the God who lies not and is truth, hast prepared beforehand, and shown forth, and fulnlled. For this reason1 also praise Thee for all things, I bless Thee, 1 glorify Thee through the everlasting and heavenly high priest, Jesus Christ, thy beloved Child, through
whom be glory to Thee with Him and the Ηοly Spirit, both now and for the ages that are to come, Amen. Now when he had uttered his Αmen and finished his prayer, the men in charge of the nre lit it, and a great flame blazed up and we, to whom it was given to sce, saw a marvel. Αnd we have been preserved to report to others what befell. For the fire made the likeness of a room, like the sail οf a vessel Rned with wind, and surrounded the body οf the martyr as with a wall, and he was within it not as burning flesh, but as gold and silver being refined in a furnace. Αnd we perceived sueh a fragrant smell as the scent of incense or other costly spices. Αt length the lawless men, seeing that his body could not be consumed by the nre, commanded an execcutioner to go up and stab him with a dagger, and when he ffidld this, there came out much blood, so that the nre was quenched, and all the crowd marvelled that there was such a difference between the unbelievers and the elect. Αnd of the elect was he indeed one, the wondertul martyr, Ρolyearp, who in οur days was an apostolic and prophetic teacher, bishop of the Catholic Church in Smyrna. For every word which he urtered from his mouth both was fulfilled and will be fulfilled.
But the jealous and envious evil one who resists the family of the righteous, when he saw the greatness of his martyrdom, and his blameless career from the beginning, and that he was crowned with the crown of immortality, and had carried off the unspeakable prize, took care that not even his poor body should be taken away by us, though many
desired to do so, and to have fellowship with his holy flesh. Therefore he put forward Niketas, the father of Ηerod, and the brother of Αlce, to ask the Governor not to give his body, ἴ’ ‘lest,,’ he ἴ’ they leave the crucffied one and begin to worship this man.’ Αnd they said this owing to the and pressure of the Jews, who Watched when we were going to take it from the fire, for they do not know that we shall not ever be able either to abandon Christ, who suffered for the salvation of those Who are being saved in the whole world, or to worship any other. For him we worship as the Son of God, but the martyrs we love as disciples and imitators οf the Lord ; and rightly, beeause of their unsurpassable affection toward their own King and Teacher. Ood grant that We too may be their companions and fellow-disciples. When therefore the centurion saw the contentionusness caused by the Jews, he put the body in the midst, as was their custom, and burnt it. Thus we, at last, took up his bones, more Ρrecious than precious stones, and hner than gold, and put them where it was meet. There the Lord will permit us to come together according to our power in gladness and joy, and celebrate the birthday of his martyrdom, both in memory of those who have already contested, and for the Ρractice and training of those whose fate it Shall be. such was the lot of the bleSSed Polycarp, who though he was, together with those from Philadelphia, the twelfth martyr in Smyrna, is alone especially remembered by all, so that he is spoken of in every place, even by the heathen.”
This great end Was vouchSafed to the life of the
marvellous and apostolic Polycarp, as the Christians of the church at Smyrna have given the story in their Ietter which we have quoted. In the same document concerning him other martyrdoms are appended which took place in the same Smyrna at the same time as the martyrdom of Polycarp, and among them Metrodorus, who seems to have been a presbyter of the Marcionite error, was given to the fire and put to death. Α famous martyr of those at that time was Pionius. The document concerning him gives a full aceount of his speeial confession, his boldness of speech, the instructive apologies for the faith and popular addresses before the people and magistrates, as well as the correction and comfort to those who had succumbed to temptation in the persecution, which he addressed during his imprisonment to the brethren who visited him, in adffition to this the tortures which he underwent, added to pain, nailing, the enduring of the name, and, after all his marvellous deeds, his death ; and to it we will refer those interested, for it is ineluded in the martyrdoms of the ancients colleeted by us.1 There are also memoirs extant of οthers who were martyred in the city of Ρergamοn in Αsia, Carpus and Ρapylas, and a woman, Agathounice, who died after many glorious confessions.
XVI. In their time too Justin, 2 whom we mentioned a little earlier, after delivering to the rulers mentioned a second book in behalf of our οpinions, was adorned with divine martyrdom when the philosopher [*](1 See Introduction, pp. li, lii. 2 See Introduction, pp. l, li.)
Crescens, who strove in life and behaviour to justify the name of cynic which he bore, instigated the plot against him, for Justin had often dereated him in debate in the presence of hearers, and finally bound on himself the trophies of victory by his martyrdom for the truth of which he was an ambassador.
This he, who was in truth a supreme philosopher, sets in advance, in. the above-mentioned Apology, just as clearly as in fact it was almost at once to happen to him, using these words: “ Ι too expect to be plotted against by one of those who have been mentioned, and to be stretched on the raek, or even by Crescens, that lover not of wisdom but of boasting, for the man is not worthy to be called ‘ philosopher’ seeing that he publicly testifies what he does not know, to the effect that the Christians are atheists and impious, aud he does this to gain the grace and pleasure of the many who have been deceived. For either he controverts us without attending to the teachings of Christ, and is a complete rascal and far worse than the uneducated, who often avoid discussing and giving false testimony on subjects jects of which they have no knowledge; and if he has studied and does not understand the greatness in them, or though be does understand them is base enough to do what he does to avoid suspicion, he is more ignoble and rescally, for he succumbs to ignorant and unreasonable opinion and fear. For I would have you to know that Ι put forward and asked him certain questions Of this kind in order to find out and prove that he really knows nothing ; and to show that I am speaking the truth, in case the information a to the arguments was not brought to you, Ι am readu to communicate the
questions again before you, and this would be a task worthy οf an Εmperοr. But if my questions and ffihls answers are known to you, it is plain to you that he knows nothing of our position, or, if he does know, does not dare say so because of the listeners, and, as 1 said before, is proved to be a man loves loves not wisdom but reputation and does not even honour the saying of socrates, worthy of affection as it is.”1
So says Justin ; and that, according to his own prophecy, he was caught by Crescens and suffered martyrdom, Tatian, a man Who in eariy life was trained in the learning of the Greeks and gained great distinction in it and has left many monuments of himself in writing, narrates as follows in his treatise against the Greeks: “ Αnd the wonderful Justin rightly exclaimed that those mentinoned are like brigands. ” Then continuting about the philosophers, he proceeds: “ Crescens, who lurked in the great city, surpassed all in unnatural rice and was also wholly devoted to the love οf money. Ηe counselled others to despise death but himself was so afraid οf it that he intrigued to inffict death on Justin, as though it were a great evil, because Justin by preaching the truth convicted the philosophers as gluttons and ” such was the cause οf the marthyrdom of Justin.
XVII. The same writer mentions in his first Αpology that before his own contest οthers had been martyrs berore him. Ηe narrates this prohtably to our sub; eet and he writes thus : “ Α certain woman lived with a ffissipated husband, and at Rrst she too [*](1 Eusebius forgot to copy the passage quoted by Justin, “Α man must not be honoured above the truth ’’ (Plato, Republic, x. 595 C).)
was dissipated, but when she knew the doctrine of Christ she reformed, and tried to persuade her husband to reform likewise, relating the doctrine to him, and announcing the punishment in eternal fire whieh will be the lot of those who do not live Soberiy and in aceordanee with right teaching. But he remained in his dissoluteness, and through his acts broke up his marriage, for his wife thought it was wicked to continue consorting with a husband who tried every kind of pleasure contrary to the law of nature and to righteousness, and wished to be separated from wedlock. Owing to the importunity of her family, who counselled her to stay with him because there Was always a hope that the husband would change, She constrained herself to stay with him, but when her husband Went to Alexandria, and she heard that he was behaving worse, in order not to be a partner of wickedness and impiety by remanining in wedlock and and sharing in his board and bed, she gave him What you call a Writ of divorce and was separated. But though her noble husband ought to have rejoiced that she, who had formerly light-heartedly engaged with servants and hirelings in drunken pleasure and in all vices, had given up theSe habits and wished him too to give up following them, he disliked her conversion and brought an aceusation alleging that she was a Christian. she ffied a petition With you, as Εmpeτor, begging that she be allowed hrSt to settle her affairs and then to answer the accusation after the Settlement of her
affairs. This you granted. But her former husband being now unable to attack her,1 turned in the following way against a certain Ptolemy, who had been her teacher in Christian doetrines and was punished by Urbicius. Ηe perSuaded a centurion Who was a friend of his to arrest Ptolemy, and to ask him thiS one thing, Whether he was a ChriStian. Αnd Ptolemy, being a lover of the truth, and not deceitful nor of false disposition, confessed that he was a Christian. The centurion caused him to be put in prison and tortured him for a long While in the jail. Finally, when the man was brought before Urbicius he Was Similarly asked only this Same question, whether he was a Christian, and again, conscious of the good whieh came to him because οf the teaching of Christ, he confeSsed the School of divine virtue. For he Who denieS anything either condemns the fact and rejects it, or knowing that he is himself unvorthy and alien from the faet, avoids confession, and neither of these is the caSe vith the real Christian. When Urbicius ordered him to be executed, a certain Lucius, who was himself a Christian, seeing the verdict which was thus given contrary to all reason, said to Urbicius, ‘What is the reason for punishing this man who has not been convicted of adulteiy or fornieation or murder or theft or robbery or, in a word, of having done anything
wrong, but merely confesses that he bears the Christian name ? Your judgement, Urbicius, is οf the emperor called Ρius, or of ’s son, the philosopher, or of the sacred Senate.’ And Urbicius made no reply except to say Ludus, ‘ You seem to me to be a Chrirtian yourself.’ Αnd when Lucius said, ‘ Certainly,’ he ordered to be executed also. Lucius expreSsed his gratitude, for he sriald he was being removed from wicked lords like these and going to God, the good Father and King. Α third man, who also came forward, Urbieius οmmanded to be punished.” To this Justin and suitably adds the words which we quoted above, “ so 1 expect myself to suffer a Ρlοt from one of those named,”
XVIII. Justin has left us treatises of an educated intelligence trained in theology, which are full οf helpfulness, and to them we will refer students, infficating what has come usefully to our knowledge. nere is a treatise by him, on behalf of our opinions, addressed to Antoninus, surnamed Pius, and his children, and to the Roman senate another, containing a second Αpolοgy for our defenee, which he made to the successor and namesake of the above mentioned emperor, Antoninus Verus, whose periodweare at present discussing; and another to the Greeks, in which, after a long and expanded argument about very many things inquired into both by Christians and the philosophers οf the Greeks, he discourses on the nature of demons, which there is no urgency to quote at present.
Αgain a second treatise agalnst the Greeks has reaehed us, Which he entitled A Confutation, and besideS them anOther about the Sovereignty of God whieh he compiled not only from our own but also from the books Of the Greeks. Besides these he WrOte rile book entitled Psaltes and another disputation Οn the Soul, in whieh he propounds various questions concerning the problem under discussion and adduees the opinion of the Greek philosophers ; these he promises to refute and to give his own opinion in another book. Ηe also composed a dialogue agailbt the Jews, which he held in the city of Ephesus against Trypho, the most distinguished Jew of the day. Ιn this he explains how the grace of God brought him to the word of the faith, and how he had formerly been Ζealous for philosophie learning and made deep and enthusiastic inquiry into the truth. In the same book he narrates about the Jews hov they plotted against the teaehing of Christ, and presses the same point against Trypho. “ Not only did you not repent of the evil that you did but you chose out picked men at that time and sent them from Jerusalem to the whole world saying that a seditious sect οf Christians had arisen, and uttering the calumnies which all those who do not know us make againrt us, so that you are not only guilty of unrighteousness against yourselves but also against absolutely all οther men.” Ηe also writes that eVen up to his own time prophetic gifts illuminated the church, and quotes the Apocalypse of John, saying clearly that it is the work
οf the apostle. Αnd he also quotes some texts from the prophets bringing the charge against Trypho that the Jews had eut them out of the scripture. There are also many works of his extant among many Christians, and thus the books of this writer seemed even to the aneients worthy οf study, for Irenaeus quotes his works, doing so in the fourth book Against Heresies in these very words: “ Αnd well does Justin say in his treatise against Marcion that he would not have believed the Lord himself had he preached a God other than the Creator.” Again, the fifth book οf the same treatise he quotes him as follows: “ Αnd well did Justin say that before the coming of the Lord satan dared not blaspheme God, seeing that he ffid not yet know his ” These points must serve to encourage students to folow his arguments zealously and such are the facts about him.
XIX. Νοw When the reign of this emperor was approaching the eighth year 1 soter succeeded Anicetus in the bishopric of Rome, who had completed eleven years altogether, and when Celadion had presided over the diocese of the Alexandrians for fourteen years,