XX. Agrippinus took up the succession, and in the church οf the Αntiochians, the famous Theophilus was the sixth from the Αpostles, the fourth having been Cornelius, who was appointed after Ηero, and after Cornelius Εros had suceeeded to the bishopric in the fifth place.
XXI. At this time there flourished in the church [*](1 A. D. 168.)
XXII. Hegesippus has left a complete record his οwn opinion in five treatises which have come down to us. In them he explriaIns how when travelling as far as Rome he mingled with many bishops and that he found the same doctrine among them all. But it is well to listen to What he said after some remarks about the epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: “ Αnd the chureh οf the Corinthians remained in the truc doctrine until Ρrimus was bishop of Corinth, and I conversed with them οn my voyage to Rome, and spent some days with the corinthians during whieh we were refreshed by the true word. When 1 was in Rome Ι reeovered the list οf the succeSsion until Αnicetus, whose deacon was Εleutherus ; soter Suceeeded Αnicetus, and after him came EleutheruS. In each list and in each city things are as the law, the prophets, and the Lord preach.”
The same writer also deseribes the beginning of the heresies of his time as follows : “ Αfter James the Just had suffered martyrdom for the same reason as the Lord, symeon, his cousm; the son οf Clopas was appointed bishop, whom they all proposed because cause he was another cousin οf the Lord. For this cause they called the ehurch virgin, for it had not
The same writer also described the sects which onee existed among the Jews as follows: “ Now there were Various opinions among the circumcision, among the children of Israel, against the tribe of Judah and the Messiah, as folows: Essenes, Galileans, Hemerobaptists, Masbothei, Samaritans, saddueees, and Pharisees.”
Ηe also wrote much more, from which we have already made some quotations, arranging the narratives chronologically, and he makes extracts from the Gospel according to the Ηebrews, and from the and Ρartieularly from the Hebrev language, showing that he had been converted from among the Hebrews, and he mentions points as coming from the unwritten tradition of the Jews. Αnd not only he but also Irenaeus and the whole company of the ancients called the Proverbs the All-virtuous Wisdom. And in disseems
XXIII. Concerning Dionysius it must Rrst be said that he was appointed to the throne of the episcopate of the diocese of Corinth, and that he communicated his divine industry ungrudgingly not only to those under him but aho to those at a distance, rendering himself most useful to all in the general epistles which he drew up for the churches. 1 Αmοng them the lerter to the Lacedaemonians is an instrunction in orthodoxy on the subject of peace and unity, and the letter to the Athenians is a call to faith and to life according to the gospel, and for despising this he rehukes them as all but apostates from the truth since the martyrdom οf Publius, 2 their leader, in the persecution οf that time. Ηe mentions that Quadratus was appointed their bishop after the martyrdom οf Publius and testffies that through his zeal they had bcen brought together and received a rerival of their faith. Moreover, he mentions that Dionysius the Areopagite was converted by the Αpostle Ρaul to the frialth, accorffing to the narrative in the Αcts, and was the first to be appointed to the bishoprie of the diocese of Αthens. There is another extant Ietter of his to the Nicomedians in which he the heresy of Marcion and compares it with the rure ofthe truth. Ηe also mote to the ehurch sojourning in Gortyna together with the οther Cretan ffidIoceses, and welcomes their bishop Philip for the reputation [*](1 Νοne of his writings are ertant.) [*](2 Nothing more is known οf this Publius.)
There is, moreover, extant a letter of Dionysius to the Romans addressed to Soter who was then boshop, and there is nothing better than to quote the words in which he welcomes the custom of the Romans, which was observed down to the persecution in our own times. “ This has been your custom from the be-
In this same letter he also quotes the letter of Clement to the Corinthians, showing that from the beginning it had been the custom to read it in the church. “ To-day we observed the holy day of the Lord, and read out your letter, whieh we shall continue to read from time to time for our admonition, as we do with that which was formerly sent to us through Clement.” 2
The same writer speaks as follows about the falsification of his owh letters. “ When Christians asked me to write letters Ι wrote them, and the apostles of the derivll have filled them with tares, by leaving out some things and putting in others. But woe awaits them. Therefore it is no wonder that some have gone about to falsify even the scriptures of the Lord When they have plotted against writings so inferior.”
Besides these there is extant another lerter of Dionysius to Chrysophora, a most faithful Christian, [*](2 It is to be noticed that Dionysius regards both the letter of Soter and the Ιetter of clement as coming from the church of Rome of which they are the first and second epirtles. There is much to be saia for Α. von ’s view that the letter which we call II. Clement is really the letter of Soter.)
XXIV. Of Theophilus, whom we have mentioned as bishop of the church of the Antiochians, three elementary treatises are extant, addressed to Autolycus, and another with the title, Against the Heresy of Hermogenes, in which he has quoted the Apocalypse of John, and there are also extant some οther books οf his on instruction. Heretics were evcn then no less defiling the pure seed of apostolic teaching like tares, and the shepherds ofthe churches in every place, as though driving off wild beasts from Christ's sheep, excluded them at one time by rebukes and exhortations to the brethren, at another by their more complete exposure, by unwritten and personal inquiry and conversation, and ultimately correcting their opinions by accurate arguments in written treatises. It is elear that Theophilus joined with the others in this campaign against them from a noble trcatise whieh he made against Marcion, which has heen preserved until now with the others that we have mentioned. His successor in the church οf the Antiochians was Maximinus, seventh from theapostles.
XXV. Philip, whom we know from the words of Dionysius as bishop of the diocese in Gortyna, also made a most excellent treatise against Marcion. Irenaeus, likewise, and Modestus, 1 who excels beyond [*](1 Νοthing more is known οf Modestus, though Jerome appears to have been acquainted with his writings (De uir. ill. 32))
XXVI. In their time, too, Melito, bishop of the diocese of Sardis, and Apolinarius, bishop of Hierapolis, Vere at the height of their fame, and each addressed apologetic arguments of their own to the emperor 1 of the Romans of that day, who has been already mentioned. The following of their works have come to our knowledge. Of Melito two books Οn the Passover, a treatise Οn Christian Life and the Prophets, Οn the Church, and Οn the Lord's Day ; besides these Οn the Faith of Man, and On Creation, and Οn the Obedience of Faith, and On the Senses 2 ; besides these, On the Soul and Body,3 and On Baptism and Truth and Faith and Christ's Birth,4 and a treatise of his prophecy 5 and Οn Soul and Body, and On Hospitality, and the Key, and the books Οn the Deuil and the Apocalypse of John, and On God Incarnate ; above all, the little book To Antoninus.6
Αt the beginning of the book On the Passover he indicates the time at which he vas composing it as follows: “ Ιn the time Of Servillius Paulus, 7 proconsul, of Αsia, at the time when Sagaris was martyred, [*](4 These appear to be the cbapters of a single book.) [*](5 such must be tbe meaning of the Greek, but a πέρι may have dropped out by accident. It is found in some Mss., but probably only a an emendation.) [*](6 i.e. Antoninus Verlb, usually called Marcus Aurelius.) [*](7 Servilius Paulus is not known, but Rufinus emended the name to Sergius Paulus, who was consul for the second time in 168, and may have been proconsul of Asia about 164-166. See Waddington, Fastes des privinces asiatiques, and McGiffert's note ad loc.)
These words are found in the treatise quoted, but in the Extracts which he wrote the same writer begins [*](1 The Εmperor and his son are Marcus Aurelius and his son the Εmperor Commodus.) [*](2 The defect in this argument is that Αugustus was dead some time before the foundation οf the Christian church.) [*](3 Translating Wilamowitz's emendation συνδιοικοῦντος, which must be right for Melito, even if not for Eusebius.)
XXVII. Of the many writings of Apolinarius which have been widely preserved the following have reached us : Α treatise to the above mentioned emperor, 1 five books Against the Greeks, and books one and two Οn the Truth, one and to Against the [*](1 Marcus Aurelius.)
XXVIII. Αnd of Musanus, whom we have mentioned in a previous passage, there is extant a certain very eloquent discourse which he wrote to some Christians who had fallen away to the heresy of the so-called Encratites, 2 which was at that time just beginning to sprout and to introduce into life its strange and corrupting false doctrine.
XXIX. The story goes that Tatian was the author of this error, whose words we quoted a little above concerning the marvellous Justin, and related that he was a disciple of the martyr. Irenaeus states this in his first book, Against the Heresies, and in the same place writes thus concerning him and his heresy. “ The so-ealled Encratites proceeding from Saturninus and Marcion preached against marriage, annulling the original creation of God, and tacitly condemning him who made male and female. They also introduced abstention from what they called ‘animate᾿ thigns in ingratitude to the God who has made all things, and they deny the salvation of the first created man. This innovation was recently made by them when a certain Tatian first introduced this blasphemy. Ηe had been a hearer of Justin but so long as he was with him, he produced nothing of this king, but after the martyrdom of Justin he left the church, being
XXX. In the same reign heresies increased in Mesopotamia, and Bardesanes, a most able man and skilled in Syriac, composed ffidlalogues against the Marcionites and other leaders of various opinions, and he issued them in his own language and script, together with many othcr οf his writings. Those who knew them; and they were many, for he was a powerful arguer, have translated them from Syriac into Greek. Αmong them is his very powerful dialogue with Antoninus Concerning Fate, and they say that he wrote many οther works in conscquence of the persecution of that time. Ηe had been first a member of the Valentinians, but condemned this school and refuted many oftheir fables, and himself thought that he had changed to orthodox opinion, but in fact he did not completely clean off the ffith of his ancient heresy.
Αt this time Soter, bishop of Rome, died.
CONTENTS OF BOOKS V
The contents of the fifth book of the History of the Curch are as follows :
I. The number and behaviour of those those who in the time of verus underwent in Gaul the struggle for religion.
II. Ηow the martyrs, beloved οf God, gave the hand οf fellowship and healing to those who had fallen in the persecution.
IΙI. ne vision which appeared in a dream to the martyr Αttalus.
IV. Ηow the martyrs commended Irenaeus by a letter.
v. Ηοw God sent rain from heaven to Marcus Aurelius Caesar in response to the prayers of the christians.
VI. The list of those who were bishops in Rome.
VII. Ηow even until those times strange miracles were wrought by the faithful.
VIII. Ηow Irenaeus quotes the divine Scriptures.
IX. Those who were bishops under Commodus.
X. On Ρantaenus the philosopher.
XI. On Clement οf Αlexandria.
XII. On the bishops in Jerusalem.
XIII. On Rhodo and the dissensions which he mentions among the Marcionites.
XIV. On the Montanist 1 false prophets.
XV. About the schism at Rome under BlastuS.
XVL The tradition concerning Montanus and those who were false prophets together with him.
XVII. Οn Miltiades and the treatises which he composed.
XVIII. Ηow Apollonius also refuted the Montanists and the quotations which he made.
XIX. Οf Serapion On Montanism.
XX. The discussions of Irenaeus in writing with the schimatics at Rome.
XXI. How Apllonius was martyred in Rome.
XXII. What bishops were famous in these times.
XXIII. Οn the paschal controversy which was then active.
XXIV. On the division in Asia.
XXV. How unanimous decision was reaehed concerning Easter.
XXVI. How much of the eloquent work of Irenaeus has come down to us.
XXVII. How much also of the others who flourished with him at that time.
XXVIII. Οn those who at the beginning put forward the heresy of Artemon, what manner of men they were, and how they have dared to corrupt the holy Scriptures.[*](1 Literahy “Among Phrygians” but this is one of usual name οf the Montanists, and passed into Latin as “Catafrygae”)
SORER, the bishop of the church of Rome, ended his life in the eighth year οf his rule. To him succeeded Elutherus, the twelfth from the apostles, and it was the seventeenth year of the Emperor Antonius Verus.1 Ιn this time the persecution οf us in some parts of the world was rekindled more violently by popular violence in the cities, and, to judge from the events in οne nation, myriads were distinguished by martyrdom. The story has chanced to be handed down in writing for posterity, and it is truly worthy of unceasing remembrance. sincc the whole reeord of its complete treatment has been embodied in our collection οf martyrs, 2 and contains not merely the narrahve itself but also an exposition οf doctrine, I will at present select and quote merely such points as belong to the present undertaking. Other writers οf historical works have confined themselves to the written tradition of victories in wars, of trimnphs οver enemies, of the exploits of generals and the valour of soldiers, men stained with blood and with countless murders for the sake of children and country and other possessions ; but it is wars most peaceful, [*](1 That B; Marcus Aurelius. Ηis seventeenth year was A. D. 177.) [*](2 That is the Acts of the Martyrs which Eusebius collected. see Introdution, p. xxiii.)
1. Gaul was the country in which was prepared the stage for these events. Its capital cities, famous and more renowned than the others in the distriet, were Lyolb and Vienne, through both of which passes the river Rhone, flowing in an ample stream through the whole district. The distingtliSlled churches of this country sent the document about the martyrs to the churches in Asia and Phrygia, in this way recording what happedned among them, and I will quote their words : “ The servants sojourning in Vienne and Lyons in Gaul to the brethren in Αsia and Phrygia, who have the same faith and hope of redemption as you. Ρeace, grace, and glory from God the Father and Jesus Christ, our Lord.”
Then after other prefatory remarks they begin their narrative thus : “ The greatness of the persecution here, and the terrible rage of the heathen against the saints, and the suffering of the blessed martyrs, are more than we can narrate accurately, nor can they be put down in writing. For with all
“First they endured nobly all that was heaped upon them by the mob, howls and stripes and dragging about, and rapine and imprisonment and stoning, and all things which are wont to happen at the hands of an infuriated populace against its supposed enemies and foes ; then they were dragged into the market-place by the tribune and by the chief authorities of the city, were indicted and eonfessed, and at last they were shut up until the coming οf the governor. Then they were brought before the governor, and When he used all his eruelty against them, then intervened Vettius Εpagathus, one οf the brethren, mled filled with love towards and towards his neighbour, the strietness οf whose life
“The rest were then ffidIrided and the first martyrs were obviously ready, and they fulffiled the confession of martyrdom with all reaffiness, but some οthers appeared not to be ready, and failcd in training and in strength, unable to endure the strain [*](1 Ζacharias the father οf John the Baptist, as is shown by the allusion to Luke i. 6 in the following line.) [*](2 Apparently the meaning is that his social position made the crowd even more indignant at his advocacy of Christians.) [*](3 It is almost incredible that this “ is ’’ was interpreted by Rcnan and others as showing that Vertius was not actually put to death.)
“Sanctus also himself endured nobly, beyond measure or human power, all the ill- treament of
“Biblis, too, one of those who had denied, did the devil bring to torture (thinking that he had already swallowed her up and wishing to condemn her through blasphemy as well), to force her to say immpious things about us, as though she were already broken and weak. But she recovered under torture, and, as it were, woke up out of deep sleep, being reminded through this transitory punishment of the eternal torments in hell, and contradicted the blasphemers, saying, ‘How would such men eat children, when they are not allowed to eat the blood even of irrational animals?’ And after this she confessed herself a Christian and was added to the ranks of the martyrs.
“But when the tyrant's torments had been brought to naught by Christ through the endurance of the blessed saints, the devil thought of other devices, imprisonment in the jail in darkness and in the most horrible place, and stretching their feet in the stocks, separated to the fifth hole, and the other outrages which angry warders filled with the devil are accustomed to inflict on the prisoners. Thus most of them were strangled in the prison, being all those whom the Lord had chosen thus to depart manifesting his glory. Some were tortured so cruelly
“The blessed Pothinus, who had been entrusted with the ministry of the bishoprie at Lyons, was over nunety years old and very weak physically. Ηe was scarcely breathing through the physical weakness which had aheady come upon ffihlm, but was strengthened by zeal of spirit through urgent desire of martyrdom. Ηe was dragged before the judgementseat, and although his body was weakened by old age and disease, his soul was kept in him in order that through it Christ might triumph. Ηe was brought by soldiers to the judgement-seat ; the local authorities accompanied him, and all the populace, uttering all kinds of howls at him as though he was Christ himself, but he gave noble testimony. When asked by the governor, Who was the God of the Christians, he said, ‘ If you are worthy, you will ’ And then he was dragged about without mercy, and suffered many blows ; for those who were near ilhtreated him with feet and hands and in every way, without respect even for his old age, and those who were at a ffistance each threw at him whatever he had at hand, and all thought that it would be a great transgression and impiety to omit any abuse against him. For they thought that in
“Then a great ffispensation of God was given, and the measureless mercy of Jesus was so manifested, as has rarely happened among the brethren, but is not beyond the skill of Christ. For those who at the nrst arrest had denied were imprisoned themselves and shared in the terrors, for this time not even their denial was any advantage to them ; but those who confessed what they were Were imprisoned as Christians, no other accusation being brought against them, the others however were held as murderers and foul persons and punished twiee as much as the rest. For the burden of the former was lightened by the joy of martyrdom and the hope of the promises, and by love towards Christ and by the spirit of the Father ; but the latter were greauy punished by their conscience so that they were conspicuous among all the rest by their faces when they were taken out. For the one went forth gladly; glory and great grace were mingled on their faces, so that they wore even their fetters as a becoming ornament, like a bride adorned with golden lace of many pattems, and they were perfumed with the sweet savour οf Christ, so that some supposed that they had been anointed with worldly unguents ; but the others were depressed and humble and wretched and ffiled with every kind of unseemliness, and in addition were insulted by the heathen as ignoble and cowardly ; they had gained the accusation οf murder, but had lost the name which is full of honour and glory and gives life. wben the others saw this they were strengthened and those who
Αfter a few more sentences they go on again: “After this the testimony of their death fell into every kind of variety. For they wove various colours and all kinds of Rowers into one wreath to offer to the Father, and so it was necessary for the noble athletes to undergo a varied conteSt, and after great victory to receive the great crown of immortality. Maturus and sanctus and Blandina and Αttalus were led forth to the vild beasts, to the public, 1 and to a common exhibition οf the inhumanity of the heathen, for the day of fighting with beasts was specially appointed for the Christians. Maturus and Sanctus passed again through all torture in the amphitheatre as though they had suffered nothing before, but rather as though, having conquered the opponent in many bouts, 2 they were now striving for his crown, οnce more they ran the gauntlet in the accustomed manner, endured the worrying of the wild beastS, and everything which the maddened public, some in οne way, some in another, were howling for and commanding, finally, the iron chair on which the roasting οf their own bodies clothed them with its reek. Their persecutors did not stop even here, but went on growing more and more furious, wishing to eonquer their endurance, yet gained nothing from sanctus beyond the sound of the confession Which he had been accustomed to make from the beginning.[*](2 Literally, “lots, ” but the word was used in a sense, for the gladiators used to draw lost as to who should fight. See the note of Valesius οn this passage, and compare Lucian, Hermotimus. The opponent is satan.)
“Thus after a long time, when their life still remained in them through the great contest, they were at last sacrificed, having been made a spectacle to the world throughout that day as a substitute for all the variations of gladiatorial eontests ; but Blandina was hung on a stake and offered as a prey to the wild beasts that were let in. She seemed to be hanging in the shape of a croSS, and by her continuous prayer gave great zeal to the combatants, while they looked οn during the cntest, and with their outward eyes saw in the form of their sister him who was crueffied for them, to persuade those who believe on him that all who suffer for the glory of Christ have for ever fellowship with the living God Then when none of the beasts Would touch her she was taken down from the stake and brought baek into the jail, and was thus preserved for another contest, in order that by winning through more trials she might make irrevocable the condemnation of the crooked serpent, and might encourage the brethren ; for small and weak and despised as she was, she had put on the great and invincible athlete, Christ ; she had overcome the adversary in many contests, and through the struggle had gained the crown of immortality.
“But Αttalus waS himSelf loudly ealled for by the crowd, for he was well known. Ηe went in, a ready combatant, for his conscience was clear, and he had been nobly trained in Christian discipline and had ever been a witness for truth among us. Ηe was led round the amphitheatre and a placard was earried before him on which was written in Latin, This Attalus, the ’ The people were very bitter
“But the intervening time was not idle or fruitless for them but through their endurance was manifested the immeasurable mercy of Christ, for through the living the dead were being quickened and martyrs gave grace to those who had denied. Αnd there was great joy to the Virgin Mother who had miscarried with them as though dead, and was receiving them back alive. For through them the majority of those who had denied were again brought to birth 1 and again conceived and quickened again, and learned to confess, and now alive and vigorous, made happy by God who wills not the death of the sinner, but is Hnd towards repentance, went to the judgement-seat, in οrder that they might again be interrogated by the governor. For caesar had written that they should be tortured to death, but that if any should reeant they should be let go, and at the beginning οf the local feast (and this is widely attended by the eoncourse οf all the heathen to it) the govemor led them to the judgement-seat, making a show and spectacle οf the blessed men to the mob. Ηe accordingly examined them again, beheaded all who appeared to possess Roman citizenship, and sent the rest to the beasts. Αnd Christ was greatly glorified by those who had formerly denied but theu confessed contrary to the expectation of the people. For they were examined by themselves with the intention of then letting them [*](1 The Greek text ἀνεμετροῦντο is meaningless. 1 have translated Schwartz's ἀνεμαιοῦντο, “ brought to ’’ though it is not quite satisfactory.)
“In addition to all this, on the last day of the gladiatorial sports, Blanffina was again brought in with Ponticus, a boy of about fifteen years old, and they had been brought in every day to see the torture of the others, and efforts were made to force them to swear by the idols, and the mob was furiolls against them beeause they had remained steadfast and disregarded them, so that there was neither pity for the youth οf the boy nor respeet for the sex οf the woman. They exposed them to all the terrors and put them through every torture in turn, trying to make them swear, but not being able to do so. For Ronticus was encouraged by the Christian sister, so that even the heathen saw that she was exhorting and rtrengthening him, and after nobly enduring every torture he gave up his spirit. But the blessed Blandina, last οf all, like a noble mother who had encouraged her children and sent them forth triumphant to the king, having herself endured all the tortures of the cffildren, haStened to them, rejoicing and glad at her departure as though invited to a marriage feast rather than cast to the beaSts. Αnd after scourging, after the beasts, after the gridiron, she was at last put in a net and thrown to a bull. she was tossed about a long time by the beast, haring no more feeling for what happened to her through her hope and hold on what had been en-
“ Not even thus was their madness and cruelty to the SaintS satished, for, incited by a wild beast, 1 wild and barbarous tribes could scarcely stop, and their violenee began again in a new way on the bodies ; for that they had been conquered 2 did not shame them, because they had no human reason, but it rather inflamed their wrath as of a wild beast, and the governor and the people showed the like unrighteous hatred against us that the Scripture might be fulfilled, Let him that is unlawful be unlawful still, and he that iS righteous be righteouS ’ For thoSe who had been strangled in the jail they threw to the dogs, and watched carefully night and day that none should be cared for by us. Then they threw out the remains left by the beasb and by the nre, torn and charred, and ror many days watched with a mihtary guard the heads of the rest, together with their trunks, all unburied. And some raged and gnashed their teeth at the iemains, seeking some further vengeance from them, others laughed and jeered, glorifying their idols and ascribing to them the punishment of the Christians, and the gentler, who seemed to have a little sympathy, mocked greatly, saying, ‘ Where is their god and what good to them was their worship, which they preferred beyond their ’ Their conduct thus [*](1 That is, by the Devil.) [*](2 Because they had been unablc to break the courage of the martyrs.)
Further on they say : “ Thus the bodies οf the martyrs, after having been exposed and insulted in every way for six days, and afterwards burned and turned to ashes, were swept by the wicked into the river Rhone which flows near by, that not even a relic of them might still appear upon the earth. Αnd this they did as though they could coquer God and take away their rebirth in order, as they said, ‘ that they might not even have any hope of resurrection, through trusting in which they have brought in strange and new worship and despised terrors, going readily and with joy to death ; now let us see if they will rise again, and if their God be able to help them and to take them out of our hands.’”
II. Such things happened to the churehes of Christ under the emperor mentioned, and from them it is possible to from a reasonable conclusion as to what was done in the other provinces. It is worth while to add other statements from the same document, in which the genueness and the kindness of the martyrs already mentioned have been set down in these very words. “ And they carried so far their zeal and imitation οf Christ, ‘ who being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God,’ that for all their glory, and though they had
Α little further οn they say: “They humbled themselves under the mighty hand and by it they have now been greatly exalted. At that time they made defence for all men, against none did they bring accusation; they released all and bound none; [*](3 The sense must be as given above, but the Greek word does not appear to be used in this sense. It is corrected in later manuscripts to ὁμολογηταί. Schwartz thinks that it is a primitive error for ὁμολογο[ῦντες ἔτ]ι, and Wendland suggested ὁμόδουλοι.)
Αnd again after οther details, they Say: “For their greatest contes, through the genuineness of their love, was this, that the beast 1 should be choked into throwing up alive those whom he had at first thought to have swallowed down. For they did not boast over the fallen, but from their own abundance supplied with a mother's love those that and shedding many tears for them to the Father, they prayed for life, and he gave it to them, and they divided it among their neighbours, and then departed to God, having in all things carried off the victory. They ever loved Ρeace; peace they commended to us; and with peace they departed to God; for their mother2 they left behind no sorrow, and for the brethren no strife and war, but glory, Ρeace, concord, and ” Let this profitable extract suffice concerning the love of those blessed ones for their brethren who had fallen, for the sake οf the inhuman and merciless disposition οf those who after these events acted unsparingly to the members οf Christ.3
ΙII. The same document οf the aforementioned martyrs contains also another story worthy οf memory, and none could grudge οur bringing it to [*](3 Eusebius wishes to emphasize the charity οf these martyrs towards backsliders in contrast to the hardness οf soul οf his οwn contemporaries, notably the Donatists and Νovatians.)
Just at that time the party οf Montanus and Αleibiades and Theodotus in Ρhrygia began first to engender among many their views concerning prophecy (for the many other wonderful works of the grace of God which Were still being wrought up to that time in divers churches produced the belief among many that they also were prophets), and when dissension arose about the persons mentioned the brethren in Gaul again formulated their οwn judgement, pious and most orthodox, concerning them, subjoining various letters from the martyrs who had been consecrated among them, which letters while they were still in prison they had composed for the brethren in Αsia and Ρhrygia, and also for Εleutherus, who was then bishop οf the Romans, and so they were ambassadors for the sake οf the peace of the churches.[*](1 Αn “example of ” because it might seem to support the heretical doctrine that matter is evil, as some Gnostics maintained.)
IV. Irenaeus also, who was at that time already a presbyter of the diocese at Lyons, the same martyrs commended to the afore-mentioned bishop οf Rome, and gave him much good testimony, as is shown by words to the following effect: “Once more and always, Father Εleutherus, we wish you greeting in God. We have asked our brother and companion, Irenaeus, to bring this letter to you and we beg you to hold him in esteem, for he is Ζealous for the covenant οf Christ. For had we known that rank can confer righteousness οn anyone, we should first of all have recommended him as being a presbyter of the church, for that is his position.”
What need is there to transcribe the list οf the martyrs in the above mentioned document, some consecrated by beheading, some cast out to be eaten by the wild beasts, οthers who fell asleep in the jail, and the number of the confessors which still survived at that time ? For whoever wishes can easily read the full aecount by taking the description which has been included in our collection of martyrs,1 as I said before. Such were the events which happened under Αntοninus.
V. It is said that when his brother, Marcus Aurelius Caesar, was engaging in battle with the Germans and Sarmatians, he was in difficulties, because his army was oppressed by thirst; but the soldiers of the legion which is called after Melitene,2 knelt on the ground according to our own custom οf prayer, in the faith which has sustained them from that time to this in their contests with their enemies, and turned [*](1 see Introduction, p. xxiii.) [*](2 Melitene is in eastern Cappadocia.)
The story is both told among writers who are foreign to our faith who have undertaken to write of the times of the above mentioned emperors,1 and has also been recorded by Christians. By the heathen writers, inasmucb as they were strangers to the faith, the miracle is related, but it was not confessed that it happened through the prayers of the Christians; but in our own writers, inasmuch as they are the friends of truth, what happened has been described in a simply and harmless fashion. Αmong these would be also Apolinarius, who states that after that time the legion which had wrought the miracle through prayer had received a name from the emperor appropriate to what had happened, and was called in Latin the “Thundering ’’2 Tertullian is also a worthy witness of these things, who in addressing in Latin an apology for our faithto to the Senate, which we have quoted already, confirmed the story with more and clearer proof. In his writing he says that letters of Marcus, the most prudent emperor, were still extant, in which he testifies himself that when his army was on the point [*](2 But from Dio Cassius and from inscriptions, it would appear that the legion had certainly this name in the time of Nero, and probably in that of Augustus.)
When Ρothinus was consecrated with the martyrs in Gaul at the age of full ninety years, Irenaeus received the episcopacy οf the diocese in Lyons,1 of which Ροthinus had been the head, and we have been told that he had been a listener to Polycarp in his early youth. In his third book against the heresies he gives the succession οf the bishops in Rome as far as Εleutherus, the events of whose days are now being discussed by us, as though his book had been composed at that time, and he gives the list, writing as follows.
VI. “Therefore when the blessed apostles had found and built the church they gave the ministry of the episcopate to Linus. Paul mentioned this Linus in his epistle to Timothy. Anencletus succeeded him, and after him Clement obtained the episcopate in the third place from the apostles. He had seen the blessed apostles and [*](1 That is, in A.D. 177. Cf. v. 1. 1, p. 407.)
Αnd after a little he says: “Εvarestus succeeded to this Clement and Αlexander to Εvarestus, and then Xystus was appointed as the sixth from the apostles, and after him Telesphorus, who also was martyred gloriously; then Hyginus, then Pius, after him Anicetus. Soter succeeded Anicetus, and now, in the twelfth place from the apostles, Eleutherus holds the lot of the episcopate. The tradition from the apostles in the church and the preaching of the truth have reached us in the same οrder and the same teaching.”2
VII. These things Irenaeus recounts, according to the extracts which we have made already, in the books, five in number, to which he gave the title of Refutation and Overthrow of Knowledge falsely socalled, and in the second book of this work he proves in the following words that manifestations of the divine and marvellous power had remained in some [*](2 It is probable that “teaching’’ is a mistake in the text οf Eusebius for διαδοχή, “succession,” which is implied by the Latin version of Irenaeus.)