Historia Ecclesiastica


Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, Lake, Loeb, 1926

XX. “ Now there still survived of the family of the Lord grandsons of Judas, who was said to have been his brother according to the flesh, and they were delated as being of the family of David. These tlle officer 2 brought to Domitian Caesar, for, like Herod, he was afraid of the coming of the Christ. Ηe asked them if they were of the house of David and they admitted it. Then he asked them how much property they had, or how [*](2 The Greek represents the Latin evocatus, apparently the name of an official, but even Rufinus did not fully understand it and made οut of it a proper name Revocatus quidam.)

much money they controlled. and they said that all they possessed was nine thousand denarii them, the half belonging to each, and they stated that they did not possess this in money but that it was the valuation of only thirty-nine plethra of ground on which they paid taxes and lived on it by their own ” They then showed him their hands, adducing as testimony of their labour the hardness of their bodies, and the tough skin which had been embossed on their hands from their incessant work. They were asked concerning the Christ and his kingdom, its nature, origin, and time of appearance, and explained that it was neither of the world nor earthly, but heavenly and angelic, and it would be at the end of the world, when he would come in glory to judge the living and the dead and to reward every man according to his deeds. At this Domitian did not condemn them at all, but despised them as simple folk, released them, and decreed an end to the persecution against the church. But when they were released they were the leaders of the churches, both for their testimony and for their relation to the Lord, and remained alive in the peace which ensued until Trajan. Hegesippus tells this ; moreover, Tertullian also has made similar mention of Domitian. “ Domitian also once tried to do the same as he, for he was a Nero in cruelty, but, Ι helieve, inasmuch as he had some sense, he stopped at once and recalled those whom he had banished.”

[*](1 About 35.)[*](2 The Greek plethron is not quite a quarter of an acre, but is used to represent the Latin iugerum=more than half an acre.)

Αfter Domitian had reigned fifteen years, Nerva succeeded. 1 The sentences οf Domitian were annulled, and the Roman Senate decreed the return οf those who had been unjustly banished and the restoration of their property. Those who committed the story οf those times to writing relate it. Αt that time, too, the story of the ancient Christians relates that the Apostle John, after his banishment to the island, took up his abode at Ephesus.

XXI. After Νerva had reigned a little more than a year he was suceeeded by Trajan,2 in whose first year Abilius, after leading the diocese οf Alexandria for thirteen years, was sueceeded by Cerdo ; he was the third in charge οf that see after the first, Annianus. Αt this time Clement was still governing the Romans and he, also, occupied the third Ρlace in the list οf bishops in Rome after Ρaul and Ρeter ; Linus was the first and after him Anencletus.

XXII. Moreover, at the time mentioned, Ignatius was famous as the second bishop at Antioch where Evodius had been the first. Likewise at this time, Simeon was second after the brother οf our Saviour to hold the ministry of the church in Jerusalem.

XXIII. Αt this time that very disciple whom Jesus loved, John, at οnce Apostle and Evangelist, still remained alive in Asia and administered the churches there, for after the death of Domitian, he had returned from his banishment οn the island. Αnd that he remained alive until this time may fully be confirmed by two witnesses, and these ought to be trustworthy for they represent the orthodoxy of the [*](1 Sept. 18, A.D. 96. 2 Jan. 27, A.D. 98.)

church, no less persons than Irenaeus and Clement οf Alexandria. The former of these writes in οne Ρlace in the second οf his books Against the Hereises, as follows : “ Αnd all the presbyters who had been associated in Asia with John, the disciple of the Lord, bear witness to his tradition, for he remained with them until the timesk of ” Αnd in the third book οf the same work he makes the same statement as follows : “ Νοw the church at Εphesus was founded by Ρaul, but Johu stayed there until the times οf Trajan, and it is a true witness of the tradition οf the Apostles.”

Clement indicates the same time, and in the treatise to which he gave the title Who is the rich man that is saved, adds a narrative most acceptable to those who enjoy hearing what is fine and edifying. Take and read here what he wrote. “ Listen to a story which is not a story but a true tradition οf John the Apostle Ρreserved in memory. For after the death of the tyrant he passed from the island of Ρatmos to Εphesus, and used also to go, when he was asked, to the neighbouring districts of the heathen,1 in some places to appoint bishops, in others to reconcile whole churches, and in others to ordain some οne of those pointed out by the spirit. Ηe came to one οf the cities which were near by (and some tell cven its name),2 and gave rest in general to the brethren ; then, while looking before them all at the bishop who had been appointed, he saw a young man οf strong body, beautiful appearance, and wann heart. ῾I commend this ᾿ he siad, [*](1 ᾿ἐθνῶν possibly means “ country-people ’’ as opposed to “town-folk.”) [*](2 According to the Chronicon Paschale it was Smyrna.)

to you with all diligence in the face of the church, and with Christ as my witness.’ received him, and promised everything, and the same conversations and protestations were used. John then returned to Ephesus and the presbyter1 took to his house the young man entrusted to him, brought him up, looked after him, and finally baptized him. Αfter this he relaxed his great care and watchfulness, because he had set upon him the seal of the Lord as the perfect safeguard. But some idle and dissolute youths, familiar with evil, corrupted him in his presature freedom. First they led him on by expensive feasts, then they started out at night for robbery and took him with them, then they urged him to greater crimes. Ηe gradually became accustomed to this, and like an unbroken and powerful horse starting from the straight way and tearing at the bit, rushed all the more to the precipice becaue οf his natural vigour. Finally he renounced salvation from God; and now he planned nothing small, but, having perpetrated some great crime, since he was ruised once for all, accepted the same lot as the others. Ηe collected them and formed a band of brigands and was himself a born chief, excelling in violence, in murder, and in cruelty. Time went on and some necessity arose to summon John. When he had arranged the rest of his mission John said, ‘Come now, bishop, pay me back the deposit which Christ and I left with you, with the church, over which you preride, as witness.’ The bishop was at first amazed, thinking that he was being blackmailed for money which he had not received. Ηe could neither show his faitjfi;mess in [*](1 Immediately above he is called a bishop.)
what he had never had, nor could he fail John. But when John said, ‘I ask back the young man and the soul οf the brother,’ the οld man deeply and shedding tears, said, ‘ He has died.’ ‘ Ηow and with what death ? ’ ‘ Ηe has died to God,’ he said, ‘ for he turned out wicked abandoned and finally a brigand, and now instead of the church he has taken to the mountains with an armed band of men like himself.’ Then the rent his gannents and beat his head with great lamentation. ‘Well,’ he said, ‘it was a fine guardian whom I left for the soul of our brother. But let me have a horse and some one to show me the way. ’ So he rode, just as he was, straight from the church. when he came to the place he was was by the sentinel of the brigands and neither fled nor made excuses, but ealled out, ‘This is why I am come ; take me to your leader.’ The leader waited for him, armed as he was, but when he recognized John οn his approach, he turned and fled in shame. But John pursued with all his might, forgetting his age and calling οut, ‘Why do you run away from me, child, your own father, unarmed and old ? Ρity me, child, do not fear me ! You have still hope οf life. I will aecount to Christ for you. Ιf it must be, I will willingly suffer your death, as the Lord suffered for us ; for your life, I will give my own. Stay, believe; Christ sent ’ when he heard this he nrst stood looking down, then he tore off his weapons, then he began to tremble and to weep bitterly. Ηe embraced the old man when he came up, pleading for himself with lamentations as best he could, baptized a second time in his tears, but his right
hand he kept back. But John assured him by pledges and protestations that he had found forgiveness for him with the Saviour, led him back, prayed and kneeled and kissed that right hand as though cleansed by his repentance. Ηe brought him to the church, he prayed with many supplications, he joined with him in the struggle of continouns fasting, he worked on his mind by varied addresses and did not leave him, so they say, until he had restored him to the church, and thus gave a great example of true repentance and a great testimony of regeneration, the trophy of a visible ” These remarks of Clement may be quoted both for the Sake of the narrative and the edification of those who shall read them.

XXIV. But come, let us indicate the undoubted writings οf this Apostle. 1 Let the Gospel according to him be first recognized, for it is read in all the churches under heaven. Moreover, that it was reasonable for the aneients to reckon it in the fourth place after the other three may be explained thus. Those inspired and venerable ancients, I mean Christ's Apostles, had completely purified their life and adorned their souls with every virtue, yet were but simple men in speech. Though they were indeed bold in the divine and wonder-working power given them by the saviour, they had neither the knowledge or the desire to represent the teachings of the Master in persuasive or artiStic language, but they used only the proof of the spirit of God which worked with them, and the wonder-working power of Christ which was consummated through them. Thus they announced the knowledge οf the Kingdom of Ηeaven [*](1 John.)

to all the world and cared but little for attention to their style. Αnd this they did inasmuch as they were serving a greater, superhuman ministry. Thus Ρaul, the most powerful of all in the preparation of argument and the Strongest thinker, committed to writing no more than short epistles, though he had ten thousand ineffable thngs to say, seeing that he had touched the vision of the third heaven, had been caught up to the divine paradise itself, and was there granted the hearing ineffable words. Νor were the other pupils of our Saviour without experience of the same things, —the twelve Apostles and the seventy disciples and ten thousand others in addition to them. Yet nevertheless of all those who had been with the Lord only Matthewand John have left theirrecollections, and tradition says that they took to writing perforce. Matthew had first preached to Hebrews, and when he was on the point of going to others he transmitted in writing in his native language the Gospel according to himself, and thus supplied by writhing the Ιack of his own presence to those from whom he was sent, and Mark and Luke had already published the Gospels according to them, but John, it is said, used all the time a message which was not written down, and at last took to writing for the following cause. The three gospels which had been written down before were distributed to all including himself ; it is said that he welcomed them and testified to their truth but said that there was only lacking to the narrative the account of what waS done by Christ at first and at the beginning of the preaehing. The story is
surely true. It is at least possible to see that the three evanglists related only what the Saviour did during one year after John the Baptist had been put in prison and that they stated this at the beginning or their nauative. Αt any rate, after the forty ’ fast, and the temptation which followed Matthew fixes the time described in his own writing by saying that “ hearing that John had been betrayed, he retreated ’’ from Judaea “ into ” Similarly Mark says, “ and after John was betrayed Jesus came into ” Αnd Luke, too, makes a similar observation before beginning the acts οf Jcsus saying that Ηerod added to the evil deeds which he had done by “ shutting up John in ” ney say accordingly that for this reason the apostle John was asked to relate in his own gospel the period Ρassed over in silence by the former evangelists and the things done during it by the Saviour (that is to say, the events before the imprisonment of the Baptist), and that he indicated this at one time by saying, “ this beginning οf miracles did ” at another by mentioning the Baptists in the the of the acts of Jesus as at that time still baptizing at Aenon near salem, and that he makes this plain by saying, “ for John was not yet cast into prison. ” Thus John in the course of his gospel relates what Christ did before the Baptist had been thrown into prison, but the other three evangelists narrate the events after the imprisonment of the Baptist. If
this be understood the gospels no longer appear to disagree, becauswe that according to John contains the first of the acts οf Christ and the others the narrative of what he did at the end of the poriod, and it will seem probable that John passed over the genealogy οf our Saviour according to the flesh, because it had been already written out by Matthew and Luke, and began with the description of his divinity since this had been reserved for him by the Divine Spirit as for one greater than they.

The above must suffice us concerning the writing of the Gospel according to John, and the cause for that according to Μark has been explained above. Luke himself at the beginning of his treatise prefixed an account οf the cause for which he had made his compilation, explaining that while many others had somewhat rashly attempted to make a narrative of the things οf which he had himself full knowledge, 1 he felt obliged to release us from the doubtful propositions of the others and related in his own gospel the accurate account of the things οf which he had shimself firmly learnt the truth from his profitable intercourse and life with Ρaul and his conversation with the other apostles. This must suffice us for the present, but at the proper time we will endeavour to explain by citation from the ancients what has been said on the point by others.

Of the writings of John in addition to the gospel the first of his epistles has been accepted without controversy by ancients and moderns alike but the οther two are disputed, and as to the Revelation there

have been many advocates of either opinion up to the present. This, too, shall be similarly illustrated by quotations from the ancients at the proper time.

XXV. Αt this point it seems reasonable to summarize the writings of the Νew Testament which have been quoted. Ιn the first place should be put the holy tetrad of the Gospels. To them follows the writing οf the Αcts of the Apostles. Αfter this should be reckoned the Epsitles of Ρaul. Following them the Epistle of John called the first, and in the same way should be recognized the Epistle of Ρeter. In addition to these should be put, if it Seem desirable, the Revelation of John, the arguments concerning which we will expound at the proper time. These belong to the Recognized Books. Of the Disputed Books which are nevertheless known to most are the Epistle called of James, that of Jude, the second Epistle of Ρeter, and the so-called second and third Εpistles of John which may be the work οf the evangelist or of some other with the same name. Among the books which are not genuine must be reckoned the Acts of Ρaul, the work entitled the Shepherd, the Apocalypse or Ρeter, and in addition to them the letter called of Barnabas and the so-called Teachings of the Apostles. Αnd in addition, as I said, the Revelation of John, if this view prevaial. For, as I said, some reject it, but others count it among the Recognized Books. Some have also counted the Gospel according to the Hebrews in which those of the Hebrews who have aceepted Christ take a special pleasure. These would all belong to the disputed books, but we have nevertheleSs been obliged to make a list of them, distinguishing between those writings which, according to the tradition of

the Church, are true, genuine, and recognized, and those which differ from them in that they are not canonical but disputed, yet neverthelss are known to most of the writers οf the Chureh, in order that we might know them and the writings which put forward by heretics under the name of the apostles containing gospels such as those οf Ρeter, and Thomas, and Matthias, and some others besides, or Acts such as those of Andrew and John and the other apostles. To none of these has any who belonged to the succession of the orthodox ever thought it right to refer in his writings. Moreover the type of phraseology differs from apostolic style, and the opinion and tendeney of their contents is widely dissonant from true orthodoxy and clearly shows that they are the forgeries οf heretics. They ought, therefore, to be reckoned not even among spurious books but shunned as altogether wicked and impious.

XXVI. Let us now continue the narrative. Menander succeeded Simon Magus and showed himself as a weapon of the devil's power not inferior to his predecessor. He, too, was a Samaritan, progressed to the highest point οf sorcery not less than his master, and abounded in greater wonders. Ηe said of himself that he was the saviour who had been sent from above for the salvation of men from invisible aeons 1 and taught that no one, not even οf the angels who made the world, could survive unless they were first rescued through the magic art which was transmitted by him and through the bapiam [*](1 The Greek word liyrtslly means “age,’’ but in ecclesiastical astical Greek is sometimes used, as here, οf the supernatural beings who form part οf Gnostic theology.)

which he delivered, for those who were vouchsafed it would obtain a share of eternal immortality in this life itself, no longer mortal but remaining here, destined to everlasting and ageless immortality. This point can also be easily studied from the writings of Irenaeus. Justin, too, in the same way after mentioning Simon continues his account of him by saying, “ We also know that a certian Menander, who abo was a samaritan from the village of Caparat taea, became a disciple of Simon and being similarly srimulated by the demons appeared in Antioch and deceived many by magical arts. He persuaded those who followed him that they would not die, and there are still some of his followers who believe this.”

It was assuredly at the instigation of the devil that the name οf Christian was adopted by such sorcerers to calumniate by magic the great mystery of religion and through them to destroy the teaching of the Chureh on the immortality οf the soul and the resurrection of the dead. Those who termed these Saviours fell from the true hope.

XXVII. But others the wiched demon, when he could not aliienate them from God's plan in Christ, made his own, when he found them by a different snare. The first Christians gave these the suitablename of Ebionites because they had poor and mean opinions concerning Christ. They held him to be a plain and ordinary man who had achieved righteousness merely by the progress of his characcter and had been born naturally from Mary and her busband. They insisted on the complete observation of the Law, and did not think that they would be saved by faith in Christ alone and by a life in accordance with it. But there were others besides these

who have the same name. These escaped the absurd folly of the first mentioned, and did not deny that the Lord was born of a Virgin and the Ηoly Spirit, but nevertheless agreed with them in not confessing his pre-existence as God, being the Logos and Wisdom. Thus they shared in the impiety of the former class, especially in that they were equally zealous to insist on the literal observance of the Law. They thought that the letters ofthe Apostle 1 ought to be wholly rejecgted and called him an apostate from the Law. They used only the Gospel called according to the Hebrews and made little account of the rest. Like the former they used to observe the sabbath and the rest of the Jewish ceremonial, but on Sundays celebrated rites like ours in commemoration of the Saviour's resurrection. wherefore from these practices they have obtained their name, for the name οf Ebionites indicates the poverty of their intelligence, for this name meanS “ poor ’’ in Hebrew.2

XXVIII. We have received the tradrtion that at the time under discussion Cerinthus founded another heresy. Gaius, whose words 1 have quoted before, in the inquiry attributed to him writes as follows about Cerinthus. “ Moreover, Cerinthus, who through revelations attributed to the writing of a great apostle, lyingly introduees portents to us as though shown him by angels, and says that after the resurrection the kingdom of Christ will be on earth and that [*](1 That is, Ρaul.) [*](2 The does does mean “ poor ’’ in Ηebrew ; but it is not known why it was applied to the Jewish Chrisrians. One guess is as good as another.)

humanity living in Jerusalem will again be the slave of lust and pleasure. Ηe is the enemy οf the scriptures of God and in his desire to deceive says that the marriage feast 1 will last a thousand. years. ” Dionysius, too, who held the bishopric of the diocese of Alexandria in οur time, in the second book of his Promises makes some remarks about the Apocalypse οf John as though from ancient οn and refers to the same Cerintus in these words, “ Cerintus too, who founded the Cerinthian heresy named after him, wished to attaeh a name worthy of credit to his οwn invention, for the doctrine of his teaching was this, that the kingdom οf Christ would be οn earth, and being fond of his body and very camal he dreamt of a future according to his own desires, given up the the indulgence of the flesh, that is, eating and drinking and marrying, and to those things which seem a euphemism for these things, feasts and sacrifices and the slaughter of victums.”

Dionysius said this and Irenaeus in his first book Agianst Heresies quoted some οf his more abominable errors, and in the third book has committed to writing a narrative, which deserves not to be forgotten, stating how aecorffing to the traffidltion of Polycarp, the apostle John once went into a bath-house to wash, but when he knew that Cerinthus was within leapt out of the place and Red from the door, for he did not endure to be even under the same roof with him, and enjoined οn those who were with him to do the same, saying, “ Let us flee, lest the bath-house [*](1 This is the obvious sense of the Greek which is, however, clearly corrupt. It would appear that Gaius thought that Cerinthus was the writer of the Apocalypse.)

fall in, for Cerinthus, the enemy of the truth, is within.”

XXIX. Αt this time, too, there existed for a short time the heresy of the Nicolaïtans of which the of John also makes mention. These elaimed Nicolas, one of the deacons in the company of Stephen who were appointed by the Apostles for the serviee of the poor. Clement or Αlexandria in the third book of the Stromata gives the following account of him. “ Ηe had, they say, a beautiful wife ; but after the ascension of the saviour he was accused of jealousy by the apostles, and brought her forward and commanded her to be mated to anyone who wished. They say that this aetion was in consequenee of the injunction ‘ it is necessary to abuse the ’ and that by following up what had been done and said with simplicity and without perversion those who follow his heresy lead a life of unrestrained license. But Ι have learned that Nicolas had nothing to do with any other woman beside her whom he married, and that of his children the daughters reaehed old age as virgins, and that the son remained uncorrupted. Since this is the case it is clear that the exposure of the wife of whom he was jealous in the midst of the disciples was the abandonment of passion, and that teaching the abuse of the flesh was continence from the pleasures which he had sought. For I think that according to the command οf the Saviour he did not whish to serve two masters — pleasure and the Lord. They also say that this was the teaching of Matthias, to slight the flesh and abuse it, yielding nothing to it for pleasure, but to make the soul grow through faith and knowledge.”

Let this suffice concerning the attempts made during this period to triumph against the truth which were, nevertheless, extinguished for ever more quickly than it takes to tell.

XXX. Clement, whose words we cited recently in the context οf the previous quotation, enumerates, on aeeount of those who reject marriage, those of the Apostles who were married, saying, “ Or will they disapprove even of the Apostles ? For Ρeter and Philip begat children, and Philip even gave his daughters to husbands, while Ρaul himself does not hesitate in one of his letters to address 1 his wife whom he did not take about with him in order to facilitate his ” Since we have made these quotations there is no harm in adducing another memorable narrative of Clement whleh he wrote down in the seventh book of the Stromata, and narrates as follows: “ They say that the blessed Ρeter when he saw his own wife led out to death rejoiced at her ealrmg and at her return home, and called out to her in true warning and comfort, addressing her by her name, ‘ Remember the ’ Such was the marriage of the blessed and the perfeet disposition of those dearest to ” Let this, cognate to the present subject, suffice for the moment.

XXXI. The time and manner of the death of Ρaul and οf Ρeter, and the plaee where their corpses were laid after their departure from this life, have been already described by us. The date of the death οf [*](1 Philipp. iv. 3 γνήσιε σύζυγε, ‘true yoke-fellow’ or ‘wife.’)

John has also been already 1 mentioned, and the place of his body is shown by a letter of Polycrates (he was bishop of the diocese of Ephesus) which he wrote to Vietor, bishop of Rome. In this he mentions both John, Philip the apostle, 2 and Philip's daughters as follows: “ For great luminaries sleep in Asia, and they will rise again at the last day of the advent of the Lord, when he shall come with glory from heaven and call back all the saints, such as was Philip, one of the twelve apostles, who sleeps at Hierapolis with his two daughters who grew old as virgins and his third daughter 3 who lived in the ΗοΙy Spirit and rests in Ephesus. Αnd there is also John, who leaned on the Lord's breast, who was a priest wearing the mitre,4 and martyr and and he sleeps at ” So far concerning their deaths. Αnd in the dialogue of Gaius, which we mentioned a little earlier, Proclus, with whom he was disputing, speaks thus about the death of Philip and his daughters and agrees with what has been stated. “ Αfter him the four daughters of Philip who were prophetesses were at Hierapolis in Αsia. Their grave is there and so is their ” so he says. Αnd Luke in the Acts of the Apostles mentions the daughters of Philip who were then living with their father at Caesarea in Judaea and were vouchsafed the gift of prophecy. Ηe says as [*](2 Possibly Polycrates has confused Philip the Apostle and Philip the Deacon and Eusebius did not notice it.) [*](3 This must be the meaning unless the text be corrupt. The Greek word tranriated “ third ’’ ought to mean “ the second of two.”) [*](4 The word πέταλον is used in the LXX. οf the “ plate ’’ οr “diadem ’’ of the Ηigh Priest (cf. Exod. xxviii.), but what it means here has never been discovered.)
follows: “ We came to Caesarea and entered into the house οf Philip the Evangelist, one of the seven, and remained with him. Αnd he had four daughters who were prophetesses.”

We have now described the facts which have come to our knowledge concerning the Apostles and their times, the sacred writings which they have left us, those books which are disputed yet nevertheless are used openly by many in most churches, and those which are altogether fictitious and foreign to our historic orthodoxy. Let us now continue the narrative.

XXXII. Αfter Νero and Domitian tradition says that under the Emperor whose times we are now describing persecution was raised against us sporadically, in some cities, from pupular risings. We have learnt that in it Symeon, the son οf Clopas, whom we showed to have been the second hishop of the church at Jerusalem, ended his life in martyrdom. The witness for this is that same Hegesippus, of whom we have already quoted several passages. Αfter speaking of certain hereties he goes on to explain how Symeon was at this time accused by them and for many days was tortured in various manners for being a Christain, to the great astonishment of the judge and those with him, until he suffered an end like that of the Lord. But there is nothing better than to listen to the historian who tells these facts as follows. “ some οf these (that

is to say the heretics) accused simon the son of Clopas of being deseended from David and a Christian and thus he suffered martyrdom, being a hundred and twenty years old, when Trajan was emperor and Atticus was ” The Same Writer says that his aecusers also soffered arrest for being of the royal house of the Jews when search was made at that time for those of that family. Αnd οne would reasonably say that Symeon was one of the eyewitnesses and actual hearers of the Lord on the evidence of the length of his life and the referenee in the Gospels to Μary the wife of Clopas whose son the narrative has already shown him to be.

The same writer says that other grandsons of one of the so-called brethren of the saviour named Judas survived to the same reign after they had given in the time of Domitian the testimony already recorded of them in behalf of the faith in Christ. Ηe writes thus: “ They came therefore and presided over every chureh as witnesses belonging to the Lord's family, and when there was complete peace in every cherch they survived until the reign of the Emperor Trajan, until the time when the son of the Lord's uncle, 2 the aforesaid Simon the son of Clopas, was similarly accused by the sects on the same charge before Atticus the Consular. Ηe was tortured for many days and gave hiS witness, so that all, even the consular, were extremely surprised how, at the age of one hundred and twenty, he endured, and he was eommanded to be ” Besides this the Same writer, explaining the events [*](2 Ηe was the brother of Joseph ; see iii. 11. 1.)

of these times, adds that until then the church remained a pure and uncorrupted virgin, for those who attempted to corrupt the healthful rule of the Saviour's preaching, if they existed at all, lurked in obscure darlness. But when the sacred band of the Apostles and the generation of those to whom it had been vouchsafed to hear with their own ears the divine wisdom had reached the several ends of their lives, then the federation of godless error took its beginning through the deceit of false teachers who, seeing that none of the Apostles still remained, barefacedly tried against the preaching of the truth the counter-proclamation οf “ knowledge falsely so-called.”

XXXIII. The persecution which at that time was extended against us in many places was so great that Plinius secundus, one of the most distinguished governors, was disturbed at the number of the martyrs, and reported to the Emperor the number of those being put to death for the faith, and in the same document mentioned that he understood them to do nothing wicked or illegal except that they rose at dawn to sing to Christ as though a God, and that they themselves forbade adultery, murder and similar terrible crimes, and that they did eVerything in obedienee to the law. In answer to this Trajan issued a decree to the effect that the tribe of Christians should not be sought for but punished when it was met with. By this means the imminent threat of persecution was extinguished to some extent, but none the less opportunities remained to those who wished to harm

us. sometimes the populace, sometimes even the loeal authorities contrived plots against us, so that with no pen persecution partial attacks broke out in various provinces and many of the faithful endured martyrdom in various ways. The narrative has been taken from the Latin apology of Tertullian mentioned above of which the translation is as follows: “ Υet we found that this attempt against us was also prevented, for the governor of the province, Pliny secundus, after eondemning certain Christians and depriving them of their rank, was troubled at their number and, not knowing what to do in the future, eommunieated with the Emperor Trajan. saying that beyond their unwillingness to offer sacrifice to idols, he had found nothing wicked in them. Ηe also mentioned this that the Christians arose at dawn and sang a hymn to Christ as a God, and in order to preserve their teaching 1 forbade murder, adultery, covetousness, robbery, and suchlike. To this Trajan sent a rescript that the tribe of Christians should not be sought out but punished if met ” such were the events at that time.

XXXIV. In the third year of the afore-mentioned emperor, Clement handed over the ministry of the bishops of Rome to Evarestos and departed this life, having been in charge of the teaching of the diving word for nine years.

XXXV. Μoreover, when Symeon suffered martyrdom in the manner already deseribed a certian Jew named Justus, who was one of the many thousands of the circumcision who by that time had belived on [*](1 The Greek word means knowledge which is meaningless and clearly a mistaken translation of the Latin. Tertullian wrote disciplinam.)

Christ, succeeded to the throne of the bishopric of Jerusalem.

XXXVI. Αt this time there flourished in Asia Polycarp, the companion of the Apostles, who had been appointed to the bishopric of the church in Smyrna by The eyewitnesses and ministers of the Lord. Distinguished men at the same time were Papias, who was himself bishop of the diocese of Hierapolis, and Ignatius, still a name of note to most men, the second after Ρeter to succeed to the bishopric of Antioch. The story goes that he was sent from Syria to Rome to be eaten by beasts in testimony to Christ. Ηe was taken through Asia under most careful guard, and strengthened by his speech and exhortation the diocese of eaeh city in which he stayed. Ηe particularly warned them to be on their guard against the heresies which then for the first time were beginning to obtain, and exhorted them to hold fast to the tradition of the Apostles, to which he thought necessary, for safety's sake, to give the form of written testimony. Thus while he was in Smyrna where Polycarp was, he wrote one letter to the church at Ephesus, mentioning their pastor Onesimus, and another to the church at Mangnessia on the Meander (and here, too, he mentioned the bishop Damas), and another to the church in Tralles, of which he relates that Polybius was then the ruler. In addition to these he also wrote to the churcb at Rome, and to it he extended the request that they should not deprive him of the hope for which he longed by begging him off from his martyrdom. It

is worth while appending a short extract from this in support οf what has been said. Ηe writes as follows: “ From Syria to Rome I am fighting with wild beasts, by land and sea, by night and day, bound to ten ‘ leopards ’ (that is, a company οf soldiers), and they become worse for kind treatment. Νow I become the more a disciple for their ill deeds, ‘ but not by this am I justified. ’ I long for the beasts that are prepared for me ; and I pray that they may be found prompt for me ; I will even entice them to devour me promptly ; not as has happened to some whom they have not touched from fear ; even if they be unwilling of themselves, I will force them to it. Grant me this favour. I know what is expcdient for me ; now I am beginning to be a disciple. May I envy nothing of things seen οr unseen that 1 may attain to Jesus christ. Let there come οn me fire, and cross, and struggles with wild beasts, cutting, and tearing asunder, rackings of bones, mangling of limbs, crushing οf my whole nody, cruel tortures οf the devil, may I but attain to Jesus Christ.”

This he put into words from the city mentioned to the churehes named. When he had already passed beyond Smyrna he also again conversed in writing from Troas with those in Philadelphia and with the church of the Smyrnaeans, and especially with Polycarp who was then the head of this church. Ηe knew well that Polycarp was an apostolic man and like a true and good shepherd commends the flock at Antioch to him, asking him to be zealous in his care for it. Ηe also wrote to the Smyranaeans quoting words from I know not what source and discoursing thus about Christ: “ For I know and believe that

he was in the flesh even after the Resurrection. Αnd when he came to those with Ρeter he said to them: ‘ Take, handle me and see that Ι am not a phantom without a body. ’ Αnd they immediately touched him and believed.”

Ιrenaeus also knew of his martyrdom and quotes his letters saying thus : “ Αs one of the Christians said when he was condemned to the beaSts as testimony for God, ‘ Ι am the wheat of God and Ι am ground by the teeth of beasts that I may be found pure bread.’”

Ρolycarp, too, mentions these same things in the letter to the Philippians bearing his name and says: “ Νow I beseech you all to obey the word of righteousness, and to practise all the endurance which you also saw before your eyes, not only in the blessed Ignatius, and Zosimus, and Rufus, but also in others among yourselves, and in Pual himself, and in the other Apostles; being persuaded that all of these ‘ ran not in vain, ’ but in faith and righteousness, and that they are with the Lord in the ‘ place whieh is their ’ with whom they also suffered. For they did not ‘ love this present world ’ but him who died on our behalf, and was raised by God for our ” Αnd he continues later, “ Both you and Ignatius wrote to me that if anyone was going to Syria he shovld also take your letters Ι will do this if Ι have a convenient opportunity, either myself or the man whom Ι am sending as a representative for you and me. We send you, as you asked, the letters of Ιgnatius, which were sent to us by him, and others which we had by us These are subjoined

to this letter, and you will be able to benefit greatly from them. For they contian faith, patience, and all the edification which pertains to our Lord.” such is the story concerning Ignatius, and Ηeros succeeded to the bishopric of Antioch after him.

XXXVII. Among those who were famous at this time was also Quadratus, of whom traffition says that he shared vith the daughters of Philip the ffistinc- tion of a prophetic gift. Αnd many others besides them were well known at this time and take the first rank in the Apostolic succession. These pious foundations οf the churches laid by the Apostles. They spread the preaching and scattered the saving seeds of the kingdom of Heaven, sowing them broad- cast through the whole world. Many of those then disciples, smitten in the soul by the divine Logos with an ardent passion for the love of wisdom,1 first fulfilled the Saviour's command and distributed their property to the needy, then, starting on their ourney, took up the work of evangelists and were zealous to preach to all who had not yet heard the word of the faith, and to transmit the writhing of the divine Gospels. Αs soon as they had no more than laid the foundations of the faith in some strange place, they appointed others as shepherds and had been just brought in, but they themselves passed on again to other lands and peoples, helped by the grace and co-operation of God, seeing that [*](1 The Greek wordd is “ philosophy ’’ ; but Eusebius does not mean metaphysics.)

many strange miracles οf the divine spirit were at that time still being wrought by them, So that whole crowds of men at the first hearing eagerly received in their souls the religion of the Creator οf the universe.

It is impossible for us to give the number and the names of all who first succeeded the Apostles, and were shepherds or evangelists in the churches throughout the world. It was, therefore, natural for us to recorded by name the memory only of those of whom the tradition still surviveS to our time by their treatises on the Apostolic teaching.

XXXVIII. such writings, of course, were the letters of Ignatius of which we gave the list, and the Εpistle of Clement which is recognized by all, which he wrote in the name of the church of the Romans to that οf the Corinthians. In this he has many thoughts parallel to the Εpistle to the Ηebrews, and aetuahy makes some verbal quotations from it showing elearly that it was not a recent production, and for this reason, too, it has seemed natural to include it among the οther writings of the Apostle. For Ρaul had Spoken in writing to the Ηebrews in their native language, and some say that the evangelist Luke, others that this same Clement translated the writing. Αnd the truth οf this would be supported by the similarity of style preserved by the Epistle of Clement and that to the Hebrewss, and by the little difference between the thoughts in both writings.

It must be known that there is also a second [*](1 so Wendland: the Mss. read ἐνήργουν.)

letter ascribed to Clement, but we have not the same knowledge of its recognition as we have οf the former, for we do not even know if the primitive writers used it. some have also quite recently put forward other verbose and long treatises, purporting to be Clement's, containing dialogues with Ρeter and Apion, 1 but there is absolutely no mention of them among the ancient writers nor do they Ρreserve the purc type οf apostolic orthodoxy.

XXXIX. Thus the recognized writing of Clement is well known and the works of Ignatius and Polycarp have been spoken οf, and of Papias five treatises are extant which have also the title of “ Interpretation οf the oracles of the ” These are also mentioned by Irenaeus as though his οnly writing, for he says in οne place, “ “To these things also Ρapias, the hearer of John, who was a comanion of Ροlycarp and one of the ancients, 2 bears witness in writing in the fourth of his books, for five books were composed by ” so says Irenaeus. Yet Ρapias himself, according to the preface of his treatises, makes plain that he had in no way been a hearer and eyewitness of the sacred Αpostles, but teaches that he had received the articles of the faith from those who had known them, for he speaks as follows : “ Αnd I shall not hesitate to append to the interpretations all that I ever learnt well from the presbyters and remember well, for of their truth I am conndent. For unlike most I did not rejoice in them who say much, but in them who teach the truth, nor in [*](3 “Ρrimitive’’ would perhaps be a better rendering for the Greek, which at Ιeast sometimes seems to mean a man who belonged to “the ” Cf. the application οf the adjective to Mnason ἀρχαίῳ μαθητῇ) in Αcts xxi. 16)

them who recount the commandments οf others, but in them who repeated those given to the faith by the Lord and derived from truth itself; but if ever anyone came who had followed 1 the presbyters, I inquired into the words of the presbyters, what Andrew or Ρeter οr Philip or Thomas or James or John or Matthew, or any other οf the Lord's disciples, had said, and what Aristion and the Presbyter John, the Ιord’s disciples, were saying. For I did not suppose that information from books would help me so much as the word of a living and surviving voice.”

It is here worth nothing that he twiee counts the name of John, and reckons the first John with Ρeter and James and Matthew and the other Αpostles, clearly the the evangelist, but by changing his statement Ρlaces the seeond with the others outside the number of the Αpostles, putting Αristion Before him and clearly calling him a presbyter. This confirms the truth οf the story of those who have said that there were twp of the same name in Αsia, and that there are two tombs at Εphesus both still called John's. This calls for attention: for it is probable that the second (unless anyone prefer the fonner) saw the revelation which passes under the name οf John The Papias whom we are now treating confesses that he had received the words of the Αpostles from their followers, but says that he had aetually heard Αristion and the presbyter John. Ηe often quotes them by name and gives [*](1 Thc meaning οf the Greek is doubrtul ; see Jackson and Lake, Beginnings of Christianity, vol. ii. p. 501.) [*](1 Cf. vii. 25. 16 (excerpt from Dionysios).)

their traditions in his writings. Let this suffice to good purpose. But it is worth while to add to the words of Papias already given other sayings οf his, in which he tells certain marvels and other details which apparently reached him by tradition. It has already been mentioned that Philip the Αpostle lived at Ηierapolis with his daughters, but it must now be shown how Ρapias was with them and reeeived a wonderful story from the daughters of Ρhilip; for he relates the resurrection of a corpse in his time and in another Ρlace another miraele conneeted with Justus surnamed Barsabas, for he drank poiSon but by the Lord's graee suffered no harm. Of this Justus the Αcts relates that the sacred Apostles set him up and prayed over him together with Matthias after the ascension of the Lord for the choice of one to fill up their number in place of the traitor Judas, “and they set forth two, Joseph called Barsabas, who was called Justus, and Matthias ; and they prayed and said." The same adduees other accounts, as though they came to him from unwritten tradition, and some strange parables and teachings of the saviour, and some other more mythical accountS. Αmong them he says that there will be a millennium after the resurrection of the dead, when the kingdom of Christ will be set up in material form on this earth. I suppose that he got these notions by a perverse [*](1 cf. C. de Boor's fragments of Papias in texte und Untersuchungen, v. 2. 170.)
reading οf the apostolic aceounts, not realiring that they had spoken mystically and symbolically. For he was a man of very little intelligence, as is clear from his books. But he is responsible for the fact that so many Christian writers after him held the same opinion, relying on his antiquity, for inrtance Irenaeus and whoever else appears to have held the same views.

In the same writing he also quotes other interpretations of the words οf the Lord given by the Aristion mentioned above and traditions of John the presbyter. To them we may dismiss the studious; but we are now obliged to append to the words already quoted from him a tradtion about the Mark who wrote the Gospel, which he expounds as follows. “ Αnd the Presbyter used to say tffihls, Mark became Ρeter’s interpreter and wrote accurately all that he remembered, not, indeed, in order, of the things said or done by the Lord. For he had not heard the Lord, nor had he followed him, but later on, as I said, followed Ρeter, who used to give teaching as necessity demanded but not making, as it were, an auangement of the Lord's oracles, so that Mark did nothing wrong in thus writing down single Ρoints as he remembered them. For to one tHhIng he gave attention, to leave out nothing of what he had heard and to make no false statements in them.' " This is related by Ρapias about Mark, and about Matthew this was said, “ Matthew collected the oracles in the Ηebrew language, and eaeh interpreted them as best he could.”


The same writer used quotations from the rirrt Epistle οf John, and likewise also from that or Ρeter, and has expounded another Story about a woman who was accused before the Lord of many sins, which the Gospel according to the Ηebrews contains. Let this suffice us in addition to the extracts made.