CONTENTS OF BOOK X
The Τenth Book of the Ecclesiastical History contains the following:
I. On the peace vouchsafed to us from God.
II. On the restoration of the churches.
III. On the dedications in every place.
IV Panegyric οn the joyful condiition of affairs.
V. Copies of imperial laws having reference to the Christians.
VI. Οn the exemption from public service granted to the clerics.
VII. On the subsequent wiekedness οf Lieinius and his tragic end.
VIII. On the victory Constantine and the blessings which he was the means of procuring for the subjects of the Roman Empire.
I. Thanks be to God, the Almighty and King of the universe, for all things; and abundant thanks be also the Saviour and Redeemer of our souls, Jesus Christ, through whom we pray continually that peace from troubles without and troubles in the heart may be preserved for us stedfast and unidsturbed.
Αnd having now added, while we pray, the tenth tome also of the Ecclesiastical History to those which preceded it, we shall dedicate this tome to thee, my οst holy Paulinus, 1 invoking thee as the seal of the whole work; and fitly in a perfect number we shall here place the perfect and panegyrical discourse on the restoration of the churches, in obediencce to the divine Spirit who thus exhorts us: “O sing unto the Lord a new song; for he hath done marvellous things: His right hand, and His holy arm, hath wrought salvation for him. The Lord hath made wn his salvation: His righteousness hath Ηe revealed in the sight of the heathen.
Αnd verily, in accordance with the oracle, which thus bids us, let us now cry aloud the new song, since, after those terrible and gloomy spectacle and narratives, we were accounted worthy now to behold [*](1 Bishop οf Tyre, and subsequently οf his nativc city, Antioch. Eusebius had a great admiration for him, and dedicated to him not only this book but also his Onomasticon. )
The whole race of God's enemies had verily been moved even as we have stated, 1 and in a moment lotted out of men's sight; so that once more a divine ying hath fulfilment, that which says: “I have seen e wicked in great power, and lifted up like the cedars f Leganon. Αnd I passed by, and, lo, he was not: d I sought his place, and it was not ” nd how henceforth a day bright and radiant with ys of heavenly light, overshadowed by never a ud, shone down upon the churches of Christ ughout the whole world ; nor were even those utisde οur society 2 grudged, if not the equal enjoyment [*](sense it is used here. But its application to the Christian iety is remarkable. )
II. So the whole human race was freed from the oppression οf the tyrants. Αnd, delivered from his former ills, each one after his own fashion acknowledged as the only true God Him who was the Champion of the pious. But we especially, who had fixed οur hopes upon the Christ of God, had gladness kable, and a divine joy blossomed in the hearts of us as we beheld every place, which a short time re had been laid in ruins by the tyrants' deeds, now reviving as if after a long and deadly destruction, and temples rising once more from their foundations to a boundless height, and receiving in far greater measure the magnificence of those that formerly had been destroyed.
Yea, and Emperors, the most exalted, by successive enacbnents on bahalf of the Christians, confirmed still further and more widely God's bounty towards us; and bishops constantly received even personal letters from the Emperor, and honours and gifts οf money. It may not be unfitting at the proper place in this work, as on a sacred monument, to insert in this book the text of these documents, translated from Latin into Greek, so that they may also be preserved in remembrance by all those who come after us.
III. After this there was brought about that spectacle for which we all prayed and longed: festivals of dedication in the cities and consecrations οf the newly-built houses of prayer, assemblages of bishops, comings together of those from far off foreign lands, kindly acts on the part of laity towards laity, union between the members οf Crist's body
Moreover every one of the Church's rulers that were present, accorffing to his ability, delivered panegyrical orations, inspiring the assembly.
IV. Αnd a certain one of moderate parts 1 advanced into the midst, having composed a discourse; and, in the presence of very many pastors who gave it a quiet and orderly hearing as in a chureh assembly, he delivered the following oration, addressed personally to a single bishop who was in every respect most excellent and beloved of God, by whose zeal and enthusiasm the temple in Tyre, surpassing in splendour all οthers in Phoenicia, had been erected:[*](1 Eusebius himself.)
Panegyric on the building of the churches, addressed to Paulinus, bishop of the Tyrians:
“Ο friends of God and priests who are clothed with the holy robe1 and the celestial crown of glory, the divine unction and the Ρriestly garb of the Holy Spirit; and thou, Ο youthful pride of God's holy temple, honoured indeed by God with revered wisdom, yet noted for the choiee deeds and acts of a youthful virtue that cometh to its prime, upon whom Ηe who compasseth the whole world hath bestowed the especial honour of building Ηis house upon earth, and restoring it for Christ Ηis only-begotten firstborn Word and for Christ's holy and reverend Bride-whether one should call thee a new the architeet of a divine tabernacle, or Solomon the king of a new and far goodlier Jerusalem, or even a new Zerubbabel who bestowed upon the temple of God that glory which greatly exceeded the former; and you also, ye nurslings of the sacred flock of Christ, –place of goodly words, school of sobriety, auditory of godliness grave and dear to God: Long ago, as we listened to the reading aloud of those passages of Holy Writ which told of the miraculous signs that God gave and the wondrous deebs that the Lord wrought for the serviee of men we could hymns and songs to God and say, even as we were taught: ‘We have heard with our ears, Ο God, our fathers have told us, what work thou didst in their days, in the days of old.’ But now indeed no longer by hearing or by report do we learn of the stretched out arm and the heavenly right hand of [*](priestly attire: cf. Exod. xxix. 5 τὸν χιτῶνα τὸν ποδήρη lit. “the garment reaching to the feet.” )
“Αnd may we never cease to praise aloud in these Words the Father οf the universe. But as for Him who is the second cause of our good things, Who brought men to the knowledge of God, the Teacher of true piety, the Destroyer of the wicked, the Slayer of tyrants, the Εmender οf human life, our saviour when we were in despair, even Jesus, let us honour Ηis name upon our lips; for Ηe alone, as being the οne only, all-gracious Son of an all-gracious since the Father in His love for man so ordained it, right willingly put οn the nature of us, even of those who anywhere lay low in corruption. And like some excellent physician, who, to save those who are sick, ‘though he sees the ills yet touches the foul spots, and for another's misfortunes reaps suffering for himself,’1 so Ηe by Ηimself saved the very abyss of death us who were not merely sick or oppressed by grievous sores and wounds already putrifying, but even lying among the dead; for none [*](1 Hippocrates, Περὶ φυσῶν 1.)
“Αnd when at this great grace and benefaction the envy that hateth the good, even the demon that loveth the evil, was torn asunder with wrath, so to speak, and was marshalling all his death-dealing forces against us, at first raging like a dog which gnaweth with his teeth at the stone hurled at him and venteth on the lifeless missiles hls fury agamst those who would drive him away, he ffirected his ferocious madness against the stones of the houses οf prayer and the lifeless materials of which the buildings were composed, to work (as at least he thought within himself) the ruin οf the churches; then he emitted his dread hissings and serpent-like sounds, at [*](1 Supplying ὀρῶν, as Schwartz suggests. )
“Αnd rightly so. For what king ever attained to so much virtue as to ml the ears and tongues of all mankind upon earth with his name 7. what king, when he had laid down laws so good and wise, Was powerful enough to cause them to be published from the ends of the earth and too the bounds οf the whole world in the hearing of all mankind? who abolished the barbarous and uncivilized customs of uncivilized nations by his civilized and most humane laws ? Who, when warred on by all men for whole ages, gave such proof of superhuman might as to flourish daily and remain young throughout his entire life? Who established a nation never even heard οf since time hegan, which now lieth not hidden in some obscure corner οf the earth but extendeth wherever the sun shineth? Who so defended his soldiers with the weapons of piety that their souls proved harder than adamant when they contended with their adversaries ? Which of the king exerciseth so great a sway, taketh the Reld after death, triumpheth οver enemies, and filleth every plaee and district and city, both Greek and barbarian, with votive offerings οf his royal houses and divine temples, such as the fair ornaments and offerings that we see in this temple ? Truly venerable and great are these Same things, worthy οf amazement and wonder, and in themselves clear proofs of the sovereignty of οur saviour: for even now Ηe spake, and they were made; Ηe
“But they verily, engaging like giants in battle against God, have thus brought their lives to a miserable end; while the issue of that godly enduranee on the part of her who was deserted and rekected by men was such as we have seen; so that the propheey of Isaiah ealleth aloud unto her in these words: ‘Be glad, Ο thirsty desert; let the desert rejoice and blossom as a lily; and the desert places shall blossom forth and rejoice. . . . Be strong, ye hands that
“Now these things, foretold long ago had been recorded in the sacred books in words; howbeti the deeds have come down to us no longer by hearsay, but in actual fact. This desert, this waterless plaee, this widowed and defenceless one, whose gates they cut down with axes as in a thicket of trees; whom together with hatchet and hammer they brake down; whose books also they destroyed and set ond frie the sanetuary of God; they profaned the dwelling-place of His name to the ground; whom all they which pass by the way did pluck, having before broken down her fences, whome the boar out of the wood did ravage and on whom the solitary wild beast did feed: now by the miraculous power of Christ, when Ηe willeth it, hath become as a lily. For at that time also by His command, as of a careful father, she was chastened. For whom the Lord loveth Ηe chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom Ηe receiveth. So then, after being corrected in due measure, once more again She is bidden anew to rejoice, alld she, blossoms forth as a lily and breathes upon all men of her divine, sweet odour; for, saith he, water broke out in the desert, the streams of the divine regeneration that the washing of salvation bestoweth; and that which a short time before was deert hath now become marsh-meadows, and a fountain of living water hath burst forth upon the thirsty ground; and
“Thus, then, the whole area that he enclosed was uch larger. 2 The outer enclosure he made strong [*](1 i.e. that occupied by the previous church. The iption here given (§§ 37-45) is the earliest t we possess of the stucture and furniture of a Christian )
“But verily, passing by this spectacle, he hath own οpen passages to the temple by means of nermost porches in still greater numbers, once again der the rays οf the sun placing three gates on οne de, upon the middle one of which he hath bestowed height and side that far surpasseth the two on either ide, and hath singled it out for special adornment ith bronze fastenings bound with iron and varied bossed work, making the others a bodyguard, as were, beneath it as their queen. Αnd after the e manner he hath also ordered the number of the rches for the colonnades on either side of the tire temple; and above them hath derised as well parate opening into the building to give still further ght; and for these also he hath wrought a varied ornment with delicately-carved wood.
‘‘Νow as to the royal house, 1 he hath builded it of thundant and still richer materials, eagerly desiring spare no expenses. I deem it superfluous for me to escribe here the length and breadth of the edifice, recount in full the brilliant beauty, the magnitude words can express, and the dazzling appearance οf e workmanship, yea, and the loftniness that reacheth eaven, and the costly cedars of Lebanon that are hced above; the mention of which even the divine acle doth not pass over in silence, sayinn: ‘The ees of the Lord shall be glad, even the cedars οf banon which he hath planted.’
“Why need I now speak more partieularly οf the perfect widom and art with which the building hath been ordered, and the surpassing beauty οf every part, when the witness of the eyes leaveth no plaee for the instruction that cometh through the ears? [*](1 Or, as we should say, “basilica.”)
“Νor did even the pavement, as one might suppose, escape his care. This also, for example, he hath made exceeding brilliant with every kind of fair marble; and then, finally, passing on outside the temple as well, he hath construeted chambers and building on either side, very large, the which he hath skilfully μnited together to the sides ofthe royal house,1 and These with the openings into the central building. These also were wrought by our most peaceful solomon, who builded the temple of God, for those who still have need of cleansing and sprinkling with water and the Ηoly spirit, insomuch that the aforesaid said prophecy 2 is no longer a word only, but is become a fact. For the latter glory of this house hath become, and in truth even now is, greater than the fonner.
“For it was meet and right that, as her shepherd and Lord had suffered οnce for all death on her behalf, and after the Ρassion had changed the foul body with which Ηe had clothed Ηinself for her sake into His splendid and glOrious body, and brought the very flesh that was dissoleved from corruption into incor- [*](2 § 36.)
“With these words, then, she danceth. But with hat words the Bridegroom also, even the heavenly ord, Jesus Christ Ηimself, answereth her, hear the rd as Ηe saith: ‘Fear not for that thou hast been ut to shame; neither dread for that thou hast en put to reproach: for thou shalt forget thy everything shame, and the reproach of thy widowhood
“These things Isaiah prophesied, these things had οf οld been recorded concerning us in sacred books; but it was neeessary that somehow we should come to learn their truthfulness at some time by facts. Moreover, since the Brdegroom, even the Word, thus addresseth Ηis Bride, the sacred and Ηοly church, fittingly did this paranymph 1 streteh out your hands in the common prayers of you all, and awake and raise up her who was desolate, who lay like a corpse, οf whom men despaired, by the will of God the universal King and the manifestation οf the power οf Jesus Christ; and having raised he restored her to be such as he learnt from the record of the sacred oracles.
“Α mightly wonder truly is this, and surpassing all amazement, especially in the eyes of such as take heed only to the appearance of outward things. But more wonderful than wonders are the archetypes, the rational prototypes of these things, and their divine models, 2 I mean the renewal οf the God-given, spirtual edince in our souls. This edifice the Son of God Himself created in Ηis own image, and everywhere and in all things hath bestowed upon it the divine likeness, an incorruptible nature, an essence incorporeal, spiritual, a stranger to all earthly matter and endowed with intelligence of its οwn; once for all at the first Ηe fonned it into being from that which was not, and hath made it a holy bride and an allsacred temple for Himself and the Father. Αnd this [*](church is more wonderful is the restoration of the soul, insamuch as the spriitual, is the archetype or prototype of the material. )
“But when through the envy and jealousy οf demon which loveth evil she became of her own free choice a lover of that which is sensual and evil, and the Deity departed from her, leaving her bereft οf a protector, she fell an easy capture and prey to the snares of those who long had enried her; and, laid low by the engines and machines of her invisible enemies and spiritual foes, she fell a tremendous fall, so that not even one stone upon another of her virtue remained standing in her; nay, she lay her full length upon the ground, absolutely dead, altogether deprived of her inborn thoughts concerning God. Yea, verily, as she lay fallen there, she who was made in the image of God, it was not that boar οut of the wood which we can see that ravaged her, but some death-dealing demon and spiritual wild beasts, who also have inflamed her with their passions as with fiery darts of their οwn wickedness, and have set the truly divine sanctuary of God on fire, and have profaned the dwelling-place of Ηis name to the ground; then they buried the hapless οne in a great heap οf earth, and brought her to a state bereft of all hope of salvation.
“But her Guardian, the Word, the divinely-bright and saving one, when she had paid the just penalty for her sins, once more again rertored her, hearkening to the living-kindness οf an all-gracious Father.
“Building verily in righteousness, 1 he duly divided the whole people according to their several abilities; with some he fenced the outer enclosure and this alone, surrounding it with a wall of unerring faith (and this was the great multitude of the people who were unable to support a mightier structure); to others he entrusted the entrances to the house, setting them to haunt the doors and guide the steps of those entering, wherefore they have not unnaturally been reckoned as gateways of the temple; he supported with the first outer pillars that are about the quadrangular courtyard, bringing them to their first acquaintance with the letter of the four Gospels. Others he joineth closely to the royal house on either side, still indeed under instruction and in the stage of progressing and advancing, yet not far off nor greatly separated from the faithful who possess the divine vision of that which is innermost. Taking from the number of these last the pure souls that have been cleansed like gold by the divine washing, he then supporteth some of them with pillars much greater than the outermost, from the innermost mystic teachings of the Scriptures, while others he illumineth with apertures towards the light. The whole temple he adorneth with a single, mighty gateway, even the praise of the οne and only God, the universal King; and on either side of the Father's sovereign power he provideth the secondary beams of the light of Christ and the Ηoly Spirit. Αs to the rest, throughout the whole house he showeth in an abundant and much varied manner the clearness and splendour of the truth that is in each one, in that everywhere and from every source he hath included the living and firmly set and
“Νow there are also in this fane thrones and countless benches and seats, as manv as are the souls on which the gifts of the divine Spirit find their restingplace; such as long ago appeared to the sacred Apostles and those that were with them, to whom there were manifested tongues parting asunder, like as of fire ; and it sat upon each one of them. But while in the ruler of all, as is right, the entire Christ hath taken Ηis seat, in those who have the second place after him [this bounty] is proportioned to each one's capacity, by gifts of the power of Christ and of the Ηoly Ghost. Αnd the souls of some might be the seats even of angels, of of those to whom the instruction and guarding of each several person hath been committed. But as to the reverend, mighty and unique altar, what might it be save the spotless holy of holies of the common priest of all ? 1 Standing beside it on the right hand the great High Ρriest of the universe, even Jesus, the only-begotten of receiveth with joyful countenance and uptunrned hands the sweet-smelling incense from all, and bloodless and immaterial sacrifices offered in prayer, and sendeth them on their way to the heavenly Father and God of the universe; Whom He Himself first adoreth and alone rendereth to His Father the honour that is due; after which Ηe also beseecheth [*](typifies the spiritual sanctuary (i.e. the soul) of Jesus Christ.)
“Such is the great temple which the Word, the great Creator of the universe, hath builded throughout the whole world beneath the sun, forming again this spiritual image upon earth of those vaults beyond the vaults of heaven; so that by the whole creation and by the rational, living creatures upon earth His Father might be honoured and revered. But as for the region above the heavens and the models there of things on this earth, and the Jerusalem that is above, as it is called, and the mount Ζion the heavenly mount, and the supramundane city of the living God, in which innumerable hosts of angels in general assembly and the church οf the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven honour their Maker and the Sonereign of the universe, proclaiming Ηis praises in unutterable words of which we cannot conceive: these no mortal man can worthily hymn, for in truth eye saw not, and ear heard not, nor did there enter into the heart of man those same things which God prepared for them that love Ηim. Of these things now in part deemed worthy, let us all together, men with women and children, small and great, with one spirit and one soul, never cease to praise and acclaim Him who is the Αuthor of so great blessings to us ; who is very merciful to all our iniquities, who healeth all our diseases, who redeemeth our life from destruction, who crowneth us with mercy and pities, who satisfieth our desire with good things; for Ηe hath not dealt with us after our sins, nor rewarded us after
‘‘Let us rekindle the memories οf these things both now and for all time hereafter; yea, and let us keep our minds night and day, through every and, one might say, in every breath, the Αuthor the present assembly, and this happy and most lorious day, even the Ruler of the assembly Himself; let us cherish and revere Him with the whole wer οf our soul; and now let us rise and beseech in loud accents, as befitteth our earnest desire, at at He would shelter and preserve us to the end in is fold, and award us that eternal peace, unbroken undisturbed, which cometh cometh from Him, in Christ esus our Saviour, through whom to Him be glory for er and ever. ”
V. But come, let us now quote also the translations made from the Latin of the imperial ordinances of nstantine and Licinus.
Copy of Imperial Ordinances translated from the Latin tongue.1
In our watchfulness in days gone by that freedom f worship should not be denied, but that each οne rding to his mind and purpose should have uthority given him to care for divine things in the [*](the people οf his pronince. It is probable that at Milan, in 313 (ix. 11.9), Constantine and Licinius drew up a norm οf ctions to governors which might be copied, with perhaps e variations in detail, and sent to the various proninces. ne redaction οf that norm was translated by Eusebius, other was transcribed by Lactantius (De Mortibus Perm 48).)
“ When I Constantine Αugustus and I Lincinius gustus had come under happy auspices to Milan, d discussed all matters that concemed the public vantage and good, among the other things that eemed to be of benefit to the many 3—or rather, first and foremost — we resolved to make sueh decrees should secure respect and reverenee for the Deity Deity ; namely, to grant both to the Christians and to all free choice of following whatever form οf worship ey pleased, to the intent that all the dirine and eavenly powers that be might be favourable to us d all those living under our authority. Therefore with sound and most upright reasoning we resolved this 4 counsel : that authority be refused to no οne homsoever to follow and choose the observanee or rm of worship that Christians use, and that authority e granted to each one to give his mind to that form f worship which he deems sritable to himself, to e intent that the Dininity 5 . . . may in all things ord us his wonted care and generosity. It was omitting to send a rescript that this is οur pleasure, in er that when those conditions had altogether been [*](3 Lat. pluribus hominibus ; the Gk. has ἐν πολλοῖς ἅπασιν luribus omnibus). 4 Omitting ἡμετέραν, with the Latin. 5 The Latin adds “ cuius religioni liberis mentibus obsequiur.” )
“Αnd this, moreover, with special regard to the istians, we resolve: That their places, at which was their former wont to assemble, coneerning ich also in the former letter dispatched to thy evotedness a definite ordinance 3 had been formerly d down, if any should appear to have bought them ther from our treasury οr from any οther source — at these they should restore to these same ristians without payment οr any demand for compensation. [*](3 Lat. certa forma. Eusebius has τύπος ἕτερος, as if he had cetera in the Latin. )
“Αnd inasmuch as these same Christians had not only those places at whieh it was their wont to assemble, but also are known to have had Other, belonging not to indiniduals among them, but to the lawful property of their corporation, that is, of the Christians, all these, under the provisions of the law set forth above, thou wilt give orders to be restored without any question whatsoever to these same Christians, that is, to their corporation and assembly; provided always, of course, a aforesaid, that those persons who restoie the same without compensation, as we have mentioned above, may look for indemnification, as far as they are concerned, from our generosity.
“In all these things thou Shouldest use all the diligence in thy power for the above-mentioned corporation of the Christians, that this our command may be fulfilled with all speed, so that in this also, through our kindness, thought may be taken for the common and publie peace. For by this method, as we have also said before, the divine [*](1 Omitting the gloss δικάζοντι. )
Copy of another Imperial Ordinance which he also made, indicating that the bounty had been granted to the Catholic Church alone.
‘‘Greeting, Anulinus, our most honoured Sir. It is the custom of οur benevolence, that we will that whatsoever appertains by right to another should not only not suffer harm, but even be restored, most honoured Anulinus. Wherefore we will that, when thou receivest this lerter, if aught of those things that belonged to the catholic Church 2 of the Christians in any city, or even in other plaees, be now in the possession either of citizens or οf any οthers: these thou shouldest cause to be restored forthwith to these same churches, inasmueh as it has been our determination that those things which these same churches possessed formerly should be restored to them as their right. Since, therefore, thy Devotedness perceives that the order of this our command is most explicit, do thy diligence that [*](2 Eusebius (see heading) took this to mean the Catholic Church as opposed to the Donatist schismatics; but this is very imrobable. The phrase refcrs to the Church in Africa as it was before the persecution and before the schism. )
Copy of an Imperial Letter, in which he commands holding of a Synod of bishops at Rome οn behalf of the union and concord of the churches.
“Constantine Augustus to Miltiades bishop of the , and to Mark. Inasmuch as documents of such a nature have been sent to me in numbers by Anulinus, the right honourable proconsul of Africa, m which it appears that Caecilian,1 the bishop of the ity οf the Carthaginians, is called to aecount οn many charges by some of his colleagues in Africa; d inasmuch as it seems to me to be a very serious tter that in those prorinces, which Dinine Pronience has chosen to entrust to my Denotedness, and where there is a great number of people, the ultitude should be found pursring the worse course f action, splitting up, as it were, and the bishops at ariance mnong themselves: it seemed good to me t Caecilian himself, with ten bishops, who seem call him to account, and such ten others as he ay deem necessary to his suit, should set sail for me, that there a hearing may be granted him in the presence of yourselves, and moreover οf Reticius d Maternus and Marinus also, your colleagues aditor, i.e. had surrendered up the Scriptures to the pagan [*](thorities. Hence they held that Caecilian's consecration as invalid; and by appointing a bishop of their own in his began what is known as the Donatist schism. )
Copy of an Imperial Letter, in which he gives orders for the holding of a second Synod for the purpose of removing all dinision among the bishops.
“Constantine Αugustus to Chrestus bishop of the Syracusans. Already on a former occasion, when some in a base and perverse manner began to create divisions with regard to the worship of the holy and heavenly Ρower and the Catholic religion, in my desire to cut short such dissensions among them, I had given orders to the effect that certain bishops should be sent from Gaul, nay further, that the opposing parties, who were contending stubbornly [*]( 2 Gk. “Sir’’; but the Lat. correctly gives the plural. The Letter, hovever. seems to have been addressed principally to Miltiades : nothing is known of Mark, who is associated with him in the opening sentence. )
VI. Copy of an Imperial Letter in which grants of money are made to the churches.
“ Constantine Augustus to Caecilian bishop of Carthage. Forasmuch as it has been our pleasure in all provinces, namely the African, the Numidian and the Mauretanian, that somewhat be contributed for expenses to certrin specified ministers of the lawful and most holy Catholic religion, I have dispatched a letter to Ursus, the most distinguished finance minister οf Africa, and have notified to him that he be careful to pay οver to thy Firmness three thousand folles.2 Do thou therefore, when thou shalt secure delivery of the aforesaid sum of money, give orders that this money be distributed among all the above-mentioned persons in accordance with the schedule [*](2 The follis was originally a bag of samll coins, but after-wards came to denote a coin itseIf, the double denarius.)
VII. Copy of an Imperial Letter, in which he gives orders that presidents of the chursches be released from all public offices.
‘‘Greeting, Anulinus, our most honoured Sir. Since from many facts it appears that the setting at [*](had under his control a still larger administrative area. Patricius as Vicar οf Africa was in the jurisdiction οf the Prefect οf Italy. His title vicarius praefectorum (pl.) is a relic of more ancient days, when the Prefects were regarded as associated together in office. )
VIII. Such then were the gifts that the divine and heavenly grace of our Saviour bestowed upon us by Ηis appearing, and such was the abundance of good things that the peace which came to us procured for all mankind. Αnd thus Our happy state was celebrated with rejoicings and festive assemblies. Nevertheless
First, he drove away every Christian from his palace; thus by his own aet depriving himself, wretched man, of the prayeis to God on his behalf, which after the eustom of their fathers they are taught to make for all men. Then he gave orders that the soldiers in cities were to be singled out and deprived of honourable rank, unless they chose to sacrifce to demons.
And, moreover, these were but small matters when judged by comparison with graver measures. What need is there to mention singly and successively the things done by this hater of God: how, to wit, this most lawless οf men invented lawless laws? In fact, with regard to those who were suffering under imprisonment, he laid down a law that no one should treat them humanely by distributing food, or have pity on those who were perishing of hunger in bonds ; and that no one should be kindly at all, or do any kindly action, even When they were moved by mere natural feeling to sympathize with their neighbours. Αnd of his laws this one at least was quite openly shameless and the harshert οf all, in its putting aside of every civilized, natural feeling, by which also it was enacted as a punishment that those who showed pity should suffer the same as those whom they pitied, and that those who humanely ministered should endure the same punishment as those who were undergoing it, and be consigned to bonds and imprisonment. such were the ordinances of Lincinius. Why should one recount his innovations with regard to marriage, οr his revolutionary changes in respect of those who were departing this life, wherein he dared to annul the aneient laws of the Romans well and wisely laid down, and in their stead brought in certain that were
For when Licinius had carried his madness to the
Thus was licinius cast down prostrate. But Constantine the most mighty Victor, resplendent with every virtue that godliness bestows, together with his son Crispus, an Emperor most dear to God and in all respects like unto his father, recovered the Εast that belonged to them, and formed the Roman Εmpire, as in the days of old, into a single united whole, bringing under their peaceful rule all of it, from the rising sun round about in the two directions, north as well as south, even to the uttermost limits of the declining day. So then, there was taken away from men all fear of those who formerly oppressed them; they celebrated brilliant festivals; all things were filled with light, and men, formerly downcast, looked at each other with smiling countenanees and beaming eyes; with daneing and hymns in city and country alike they gave honour first of all to God the universal King, for this they had been instrueted to do, and, then to the pious Emperor with his sons beloved of God; old ills were forgotten and oblivion cast on every deed of impiety; present good things were enjoyed, with the further hope of those which were yet for to come. Αnd, in short, there ẁ̀ere promulgated in every plaee ordinances of the victorious Emperor full of love for humanity, and las that betokened munificence and true piety. Thus verily, when all tyranny had been purged away, the kingdom that belonged to them was preserved stedfast and undisputed for Constantine and his sons alone;