Historia Ecclesiastica


Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, Lake, Loeb, 1926


The Τenth Book of the Ecclesiastical History contains the following:

I. On the peace vouchsafed to us from God.

II. On the restoration of the churches.

III. On the dedications in every place.

IV Panegyric οn the joyful condiition of affairs.

V. Copies of imperial laws having reference to the Christians.

VI. Οn the exemption from public service granted to the clerics.

VII. On the subsequent wiekedness οf Lieinius and his tragic end.

VIII. On the victory Constantine and the blessings which he was the means of procuring for the subjects of the Roman Empire.



I. Thanks be to God, the Almighty and King of the universe, for all things; and abundant thanks be also the Saviour and Redeemer of our souls, Jesus Christ, through whom we pray continually that peace from troubles without and troubles in the heart may be preserved for us stedfast and unidsturbed.

Αnd having now added, while we pray, the tenth tome also of the Ecclesiastical History to those which preceded it, we shall dedicate this tome to thee, my οst holy Paulinus, 1 invoking thee as the seal of the whole work; and fitly in a perfect number we shall here place the perfect and panegyrical discourse on the restoration of the churches, in obediencce to the divine Spirit who thus exhorts us: “O sing unto the Lord a new song; for he hath done marvellous things: His right hand, and His holy arm, hath wrought salvation for him. The Lord hath made wn his salvation: His righteousness hath Ηe revealed in the sight of the heathen.

Αnd verily, in accordance with the oracle, which thus bids us, let us now cry aloud the new song, since, after those terrible and gloomy spectacle and narratives, we were accounted worthy now to behold [*](1 Bishop οf Tyre, and subsequently οf his nativc city, Antioch. Eusebius had a great admiration for him, and dedicated to him not only this book but also his Onomasticon. )

and to celebrate in panegyric such things as οf a many righteous men and martyrs of God Before desired to see upon earth and saw them not, and hear, and heard them not. But they indeed ting with all speed, obtained far better things in the heavens themselves and were caught up into a aradise of divine pleasure; while we, acknowledge that even these present things are beyond our , have been utterly astounded at the munificence οf the bounty of which Ηe is the Αuthor, and h our whole soul's might fittingly render Ηim awe and worship, attesting the truth of the written preedictions, wherein it is said: “came and behold the works οf the Lord, what wonders Ηe hath the earth, making wars to cease unto the ends of the earth. Ηe break break the bow and shatter the ur, and the shields he will bum with fire.” Rejoicing that these things have been clearly fuld to us-ward, led us proceed to take up οur narrative.

The whole race of God's enemies had verily been moved even as we have stated, 1 and in a moment lotted out of men's sight; so that once more a divine ying hath fulfilment, that which says: “I have seen e wicked in great power, and lifted up like the cedars f Leganon. Αnd I passed by, and, lo, he was not: d I sought his place, and it was not ” nd how henceforth a day bright and radiant with ys of heavenly light, overshadowed by never a ud, shone down upon the churches of Christ ughout the whole world ; nor were even those utisde οur society 2 grudged, if not the equal enjoyment [*](sense it is used here. But its application to the Christian iety is remarkable. )

of our divinely-sent blessings, at any rate a in their effluence and a participation thereof.

II. So the whole human race was freed from the oppression οf the tyrants. Αnd, delivered from his former ills, each one after his own fashion acknowledged as the only true God Him who was the Champion of the pious. But we especially, who had fixed οur hopes upon the Christ of God, had gladness kable, and a divine joy blossomed in the hearts of us as we beheld every place, which a short time re had been laid in ruins by the tyrants' deeds, now reviving as if after a long and deadly destruction, and temples rising once more from their foundations to a boundless height, and receiving in far greater measure the magnificence of those that formerly had been destroyed.

Yea, and Emperors, the most exalted, by successive enacbnents on bahalf of the Christians, confirmed still further and more widely God's bounty towards us; and bishops constantly received even personal letters from the Emperor, and honours and gifts οf money. It may not be unfitting at the proper place in this work, as on a sacred monument, to insert in this book the text of these documents, translated from Latin into Greek, so that they may also be preserved in remembrance by all those who come after us.

III. After this there was brought about that spectacle for which we all prayed and longed: festivals of dedication in the cities and consecrations οf the newly-built houses of prayer, assemblages of bishops, comings together of those from far off foreign lands, kindly acts on the part of laity towards laity, union between the members οf Crist's body

as they met together in complete harmony. Certainly in accordance with a prophetic prediction that mystically signified beforehand what was for to come, there came together bone to bone and joint to joint, and all that the oracular utterance in dark speech truly foretold. One was the power of the divine Spirt that spread through all the members; all were of one soul, and displayed the same zeal for the faith; one hymn of praise to God came from the lips of all Yea verily our leaders conducted perfect ceremonies, and the consecrated priests pertonned the sacred rites and stately ordinances of the Church, here with psalmody and recitation of such other words as have been giveu us from God, there with the ministering of divine and mystic services; and the ineffable symbols of the Saviour's Ρassion were present. Αnd all together, of every age, male and female, with the whole power of their mind gave honour to God the Αuthor of their good fortune, in prayer and thanksgiving with joyful heart and soul.

Moreover every one of the Church's rulers that were present, accorffing to his ability, delivered panegyrical orations, inspiring the assembly.

IV. Αnd a certain one of moderate parts 1 advanced into the midst, having composed a discourse; and, in the presence of very many pastors who gave it a quiet and orderly hearing as in a chureh assembly, he delivered the following oration, addressed personally to a single bishop who was in every respect most excellent and beloved of God, by whose zeal and enthusiasm the temple in Tyre, surpassing in splendour all οthers in Phoenicia, had been erected:

[*](1 Eusebius himself.)

Panegyric on the building of the churches, addressed to Paulinus, bishop of the Tyrians:

“Ο friends of God and priests who are clothed with the holy robe1 and the celestial crown of glory, the divine unction and the Ρriestly garb of the Holy Spirit; and thou, Ο youthful pride of God's holy temple, honoured indeed by God with revered wisdom, yet noted for the choiee deeds and acts of a youthful virtue that cometh to its prime, upon whom Ηe who compasseth the whole world hath bestowed the especial honour of building Ηis house upon earth, and restoring it for Christ Ηis only-begotten firstborn Word and for Christ's holy and reverend Bride-whether one should call thee a new the architeet of a divine tabernacle, or Solomon the king of a new and far goodlier Jerusalem, or even a new Zerubbabel who bestowed upon the temple of God that glory which greatly exceeded the former; and you also, ye nurslings of the sacred flock of Christ, –place of goodly words, school of sobriety, auditory of godliness grave and dear to God: Long ago, as we listened to the reading aloud of those passages of Holy Writ which told of the miraculous signs that God gave and the wondrous deebs that the Lord wrought for the serviee of men we could hymns and songs to God and say, even as we were taught: ‘We have heard with our ears, Ο God, our fathers have told us, what work thou didst in their days, in the days of old.’ But now indeed no longer by hearing or by report do we learn of the stretched out arm and the heavenly right hand of [*](priestly attire: cf. Exod. xxix. 5 τὸν χιτῶνα τὸν ποδήρη lit. “the garment reaching to the feet.” )

οur all-gracious God and universal King; nay, deeds, as one might say, and with our very eyes do we behold that those things committed to memory long ago are faithful and true; and so we can sing a second hymn οf victory, and raise our voices aloud and say: ‘As we have heard, so have we seen in the city of the Lord of hosts, in the city οf οur God.’ Αnd in what city, if it be not the new-made city that God hath builded, which is the chureh of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth; οf also another divine oracle speaketh good tidings, somewhat on this manner: ‘Glorious things are spoken of thee, O city οf God’ ? To which city since the all-gracious God hath gathered us, through the grace of Ηis Only-begotten, let each ofthe sing, yea all but shout, and say ‘I was glad when they said unto me, we will go unto the house οf the Lord’ ; Lord’; and ‘Lord I have loved the beauty house, and the place where thy glory dwelleth.’ Αnd let not οnly each one by himself, but also all together with οne spirit and one soul, give honour and praise, saying: ‘Great is the Lord, and highly to be praised, in the city of οur God, in his holy ’. Yea verily, Ηe is truly great, and great is Ηis house, lofty and large ; and more lovely in beauty than the sons of men. Great is the Lord who only doeth wondrous things. Great is Ηe who doeth great things and past finding out; yea, glorious and marvellous things of which there is no number. Great is Ηe who changeth the times and the seasons, removing kings and setting them up, raising up the poor from the ground, and from the dunghill setting up the needy. Ηe hath put down princes from their thrones, and hath exalted them of low degree from the
ground. The hungry he hath filled with good things, and he hath broken the arms of the proud. since, therefore, Ηe hath confirmed not only for the faithful but also for the faithless the record of the ancient narratives, even Ηe, the Doer of wonders, the Doer of great things, the Lord of the universe, the Μaker of the whole world, the Αlmighty, the All-gracious, the one and only —let us sing to Ηim the new song, supplying in thought this also: ‘To him who alone doeth great wonders: for his mercy endureth for ever . . . to him which smote great kings, . . . and slew mighty kings; for his mercy endureth for ever . . . for he remembered us in our low estate, . . . and hath delivered us from our adversaries.’

“Αnd may we never cease to praise aloud in these Words the Father οf the universe. But as for Him who is the second cause of our good things, Who brought men to the knowledge of God, the Teacher of true piety, the Destroyer of the wicked, the Slayer of tyrants, the Εmender οf human life, our saviour when we were in despair, even Jesus, let us honour Ηis name upon our lips; for Ηe alone, as being the οne only, all-gracious Son of an all-gracious since the Father in His love for man so ordained it, right willingly put οn the nature of us, even of those who anywhere lay low in corruption. And like some excellent physician, who, to save those who are sick, ‘though he sees the ills yet touches the foul spots, and for another's misfortunes reaps suffering for himself,’1 so Ηe by Ηimself saved the very abyss of death us who were not merely sick or oppressed by grievous sores and wounds already putrifying, but even lying among the dead; for none [*](1 Hippocrates, Περὶ φυσῶν 1.)

other in heaven possessed such strength as to minister unscathed for the salvation of so many. Ηe, then, it was who alone laid hold upon the grievous suffering of οur corruption, alone endured our sorrows, alone took upon Himself the penalty for our wickednesses; and when we were, I will not say, half dead, but even by this time altogether foul and stinking in tombs and graves, Ηe raised us up, and saveth us now as in the days ofold, in Ηis earnest love for man, beyond the hope of anyone, even οf ourselves, and the good things of Ηis Father imparteth to us freely a share — Ηe who is the Giver of life the Enlightener, our great Physician and King and Lord, the Christ of God. Yea at that time, when Ηe beheld 1 the whole human raee lring sunk in gloomy night and daxkness profound through the deceit of baneful demons and the operations of God-hating spirits, by naught save Ηis appearing Ηe broke asunder once for all the many-fettered chains of our wickednesses, as wax is melted by the rays of Ηis light.

“Αnd when at this great grace and benefaction the envy that hateth the good, even the demon that loveth the evil, was torn asunder with wrath, so to speak, and was marshalling all his death-dealing forces against us, at first raging like a dog which gnaweth with his teeth at the stone hurled at him and venteth on the lifeless missiles hls fury agamst those who would drive him away, he ffirected his ferocious madness against the stones of the houses οf prayer and the lifeless materials of which the buildings were composed, to work (as at least he thought within himself) the ruin οf the churches; then he emitted his dread hissings and serpent-like sounds, at [*](1 Supplying ὀρῶν, as Schwartz suggests. )

οne time by the threats of wicked tyrants, at another by blasphemous ordinances of impious rulers; yea further, he vomited forth the death that was his, and bewitched the souh he captured by his baneful and soul-destroying poisons, all but causing their death by his death-fraught sacrifices to dead idols, and secretly stirring up every wild beast in shape of man, and every kind of savage thing, agriaInst us. But now, now again once more the Αngel of mighty counsel, the great captain of the host of God, after that the greatest soldiers in Ηis kingdom had given sufficient proof of their full training by their endurance and stedfastness in all things, by naught save His sudden apearing caused to vanish into nothingness whatsoever was adverse and hostile, so that it seemed never to have had even a name; howbeit, whatsoever was friendly and dear to Him, that Ηe advanced beyond all glory in the sight of all, not only of men, but even also οf the powers of heaven, the sun and moon and stars, and of the whole heaven and earth ; so that now — a thing unknown heretofore—the most Emperors of all, conscious of the honour which they have received nom Him, spit upon the faces οf dead idoh, traInple upon the unhallowed rites οf deomons, and laugh at the old deceits they inherited from their fathers: but Him who is the common Benefactor of all and of themselves they recognize as the one and only God, and confess that christ the son οf God is sovereign King of the universe, and style Him as Saviour on monuments, inseribing in an imperishable record Ηis righteous acts and His victories over the impious ones, in imperial characters in the midst of the city that is Empress among the cities of the world.
Thus Jesus Christ our Saviour, alone of those who have ever been, is acknowledged, even by the most exalted on the earth, not as an ordinary king taken from among men, but is worshipped as the very son of the God οf the universe, and as Ηimself God.

“Αnd rightly so. For what king ever attained to so much virtue as to ml the ears and tongues of all mankind upon earth with his name 7. what king, when he had laid down laws so good and wise, Was powerful enough to cause them to be published from the ends of the earth and too the bounds οf the whole world in the hearing of all mankind? who abolished the barbarous and uncivilized customs of uncivilized nations by his civilized and most humane laws ? Who, when warred on by all men for whole ages, gave such proof of superhuman might as to flourish daily and remain young throughout his entire life? Who established a nation never even heard οf since time hegan, which now lieth not hidden in some obscure corner οf the earth but extendeth wherever the sun shineth? Who so defended his soldiers with the weapons of piety that their souls proved harder than adamant when they contended with their adversaries ? Which of the king exerciseth so great a sway, taketh the Reld after death, triumpheth οver enemies, and filleth every plaee and district and city, both Greek and barbarian, with votive offerings οf his royal houses and divine temples, such as the fair ornaments and offerings that we see in this temple ? Truly venerable and great are these Same things, worthy οf amazement and wonder, and in themselves clear proofs of the sovereignty of οur saviour: for even now Ηe spake, and they were made; Ηe

commanded, and they were created: for what could resist the will of the universal King and Ruler and the Word of God Himself? Such things would require a discourse of their own were one carefully to exmaine and expound them at leisure. Υet indeed the zeal of those who have laboured is not so great or so noble in the judgement of Him whom we address as God, when Ηe looketh into the lively temple which we all compose, and vieweth the house formed of living and firmly set stones, well and securely grounded upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone; which stone the master–builders rejected, not only of that old building which is no more, but also of that building which compriseth the more part of mankind to the present day, evil workmen as they were of evil things; but the Father approved it, and then and now builded it into the head of the corner of this our common Church. This living temple, then, of a living God Formed out of ourselves, Ι mean the greatest sanctuary and truly reverend, whose innermost shrine may noit be seen by the common eye, for verily holy it is and a holy οf —who that viewed it would dare to describe ? Who is able even to peer into the temple buildings that surround it, save only the great High Priest of the universe, to whom alone it is peimitted to search the hidden mysteries of every rational soul But perehance it is possible for another also, and for one alone among equals, to take the second place after Ηim, namely, for the commander who presideth over this army, whom the first and great High Priest Himself hath honoured with the second place in the priestly ministries of thhis place, the pastor of your
divine flock who was allotted and adjudged your people by the Father, as Ηe Ηimself had appointed him Ηis attendant and interpreter, the new Αaron οr Melchizedek, made like unto the Son οf God, abiding and kept by Ηim continually by the common prayers of you all. To him, therefore, let it be permitted alone, after the first and greatest High Priest, if not in the first at any rate in the second place, to behold and inspect the inmost recesses of your souh; since through experience and length of time 1 he hath proved eaeh one and and his his zealous care he hath disposed you all in a godly order and doctrine; and he best of all is able to give such an account as will match his deedS, of those things that he himself hath wrought by the power οf God. “Νow our first and great Ηigh Priest saith that whatsoever things he seeth the Father doing, these the son also doeth in like manner. Αnd this one also, looking unto the nrst as unto a master with the pure eyes of the mind, whatsoever he seeth Ηim doing, these he useth as patterns and archetypes, and by his worbnanship hath wTought their images, as far as in him lieth, into the closest likeness; thus in no wise doth he come behind that Bezalel, whom God Himself filled with the spirit of wisdom and understanding and with the knowledge as well of crafts and sciences, and called him to be the workman that should construct the temple of heavenly types in symbolic fashion. After this manner, then, this man also, bearing in his own soul the image of Christ entire, the Word, the Wisdom, the Light, [*](1 These words seem to imply that Paulinus, though young, had been bishop for some time.)
ηαth formed this magnificent temple of God most hing, answering in its nature to the pattern of that ich is better, even as the visible answereth to the visible; nor could one describe with what noblenindedness, with what a liberal hand — whose will to ve was insatiable—and with what emulation on of you all ye nobly ried with one another by the ge-hearthedness of your contributions in no come behind him in this selksame purpose. Αnd place-which thing also is worthy to be first οf all—which by the evil designs of emies had been corvered with all kinds of vile bbish, he did not overlook nor sunender to the alice οf those who did this, though he might have ighted upon another spot (for the city supplied untless other sites), and thus found relief from toil freedom from trouble. Νay, he first of all ed himself to the word; then by his zeal he ngthened the whole people, and gathering together all into οne great body, entered upon the t contest; for he deemed that she especially ho had been destroyed by the enemy, she who had en aforetime afflicted and had endured the same rsecutions as we and before us, even the church who ike a mother had been bereft οf her children, should ave her share in the enjoyment of the bounty of the -gracious God. For since once more the great hepherd, having driven away the wild beasts and e wolves and every kind of cruel and savage crature, and having broken the great teeth of the ions, as the divine oracles say, once more had vouched to bring Ηis sons together, it was most meet hat he should also set up the fold of the flock, that e might put to shame the enemy and the avenger,
and openly rebuke the evil deeds of impious men fighting against God. Αnd now these men, the haters of God, are no more, for they never were; but after troubling and being troubled for a little while, then they paid to Justice no contemptible penalty, accomplishing the utter overthrow of themselves, their friends and houses; so that the predictions whieh long ago had been inscribed on sacred records are confessedly proved trustworthy by the facts, in which among other true things that the divine word speaketh, this also it declareth concerning them: ‘The wicked have drawn out the sword and have bent their bow; to east down the poor and needy, to slay the upright in heart: may their sword enter into their own hearts, and may their bows be broken’; broken’ ; and again: ‘Their perished with a sound,’ and ‘Their name hath blotted out for ever and for ever and ever’; verily when they also were in trouble ‘They cried, and there was none to save: unto the Lord, and he did not hear them’; yea, they indeed ‘had their feet together and fell, but we rose and stood upright’; and that which was predicted in these words, ‘Lord, in thy city thou shalt set at naught their image,’ hath been shown to be true before the eyes of all.

“But they verily, engaging like giants in battle against God, have thus brought their lives to a miserable end; while the issue of that godly enduranee on the part of her who was deserted and rekected by men was such as we have seen; so that the propheey of Isaiah ealleth aloud unto her in these words: ‘Be glad, Ο thirsty desert; let the desert rejoice and blossom as a lily; and the desert places shall blossom forth and rejoice. . . . Be strong, ye hands that

hang down, and ye palsied knees. Be of good courage, ye feeble-hearted, be strong, fear not; behold, our God recompenseth judgement, and will recompense; he will come and save you. . . . For,’ saith he, broke out in the desert, and a stream in thirsty ground. Αnd the waterless place shall become marsh-meadows, and upon the thirsty ground shall be a foundain of water.’

“Now these things, foretold long ago had been recorded in the sacred books in words; howbeti the deeds have come down to us no longer by hearsay, but in actual fact. This desert, this waterless plaee, this widowed and defenceless one, whose gates they cut down with axes as in a thicket of trees; whom together with hatchet and hammer they brake down; whose books also they destroyed and set ond frie the sanetuary of God; they profaned the dwelling-place of His name to the ground; whom all they which pass by the way did pluck, having before broken down her fences, whome the boar out of the wood did ravage and on whom the solitary wild beast did feed: now by the miraculous power of Christ, when Ηe willeth it, hath become as a lily. For at that time also by His command, as of a careful father, she was chastened. For whom the Lord loveth Ηe chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom Ηe receiveth. So then, after being corrected in due measure, once more again She is bidden anew to rejoice, alld she, blossoms forth as a lily and breathes upon all men of her divine, sweet odour; for, saith he, water broke out in the desert, the streams of the divine regeneration that the washing of salvation bestoweth; and that which a short time before was deert hath now become marsh-meadows, and a fountain of living water hath burst forth upon the thirsty ground; and

in very truth hands that before hung down have me strong, of the stength of which hands these t and maniifest works are tokens. Yea, and the es that long ago were diseased and relaxed have vered their natural movement, and go straight ard upon the way of the knowledge of God, tinh to the flock of the all-gracious Shepherd, eir true home. But if through the threats of the ants the souls of some have waxed numb, not even ese the saving Word pass by as incurable, but ht Ηe health them also and urgeth them on ards divine encouragement, encouragement, saying: ‘Be of courage, ye feeble-hearted, be strong, fear not.’ “The word which prophesied that she whom God made desert was to enjoy these blessings, this new and goodly Zerubbabel 1 heard with the sharp ing of his mind, after that bitter captivity and abomination of desolation; nor did he pass by e corpse as dead, but first of all with entreaties d prayer he propitiated the Father with the common nsent οf you all; and taking as his Αlly and Fellow- rker Him who alone can quicken the dead, he ised up her that had fallen, having first cleansed and aled her οf her ills; and he clothed her with a ent, the old one that she had from the geinning, but with such a one as he was once more cted by the divine oracles, which thus clearly y : ‘Αnd the latter glory of this house shall be ater than the former.’

“Thus, then, the whole area that he enclosed was uch larger. 2 The outer enclosure he made strong [*](1 i.e. that occupied by the previous church. The iption here given (§§ 37-45) is the earliest t we possess of the stucture and furniture of a Christian )

with the surrounding surrounding the whole, so that it might a most secure defence thereof; while he spread t a porch, great and raised aloft, towards the rays the rising sun, and even to those standing far outside the sacred precincts supplied no scanty view of at which is within; thus, one might say, turning he gaze, even of strangers to the faith, towards the t entrances, so that none might hastily pass by ithout first haring his soul mightily struck by the emory of the former desolation and the wondrous iracle οf to-day; struck by which he hoped that rchance such a one would also be impelled, and ve his steps tumed forwards by the bare sight, wards the entrance. Νow he hath not permitted im that passeth inside the gates to tread forthwith ith unhallowed and unwashen feet upon the holy laces withing; but hath left a space exceeding large tween the temple and the first entrances, and orned it au around with four transvers colonnades, encing the place into a kind of quadrangular figure, ith pillars raised on every side, and filling the spaces tween them with wooden barriers οf lattice-work ising to a convenient height; and in the midst ereof he hath left an open space where men can e the sky, thus providing it with air bright and pen to the rays of light Αnd here he hath placed of sacred purifications, by erecting fountains ight opposite the temple, whose copious streams οf owing water supply cleansing to those who are vancing within the sacred precincts. Αnd this is he first stopping-place for those that enter; supply- g at once adornment and splendour to the whole, d a place οf sojourn suited to such as are still in need οf their first instructions.


“But verily, passing by this spectacle, he hath own οpen passages to the temple by means of nermost porches in still greater numbers, once again der the rays οf the sun placing three gates on οne de, upon the middle one of which he hath bestowed height and side that far surpasseth the two on either ide, and hath singled it out for special adornment ith bronze fastenings bound with iron and varied bossed work, making the others a bodyguard, as were, beneath it as their queen. Αnd after the e manner he hath also ordered the number of the rches for the colonnades on either side of the tire temple; and above them hath derised as well parate opening into the building to give still further ght; and for these also he hath wrought a varied ornment with delicately-carved wood.

‘‘Νow as to the royal house, 1 he hath builded it of thundant and still richer materials, eagerly desiring spare no expenses. I deem it superfluous for me to escribe here the length and breadth of the edifice, recount in full the brilliant beauty, the magnitude words can express, and the dazzling appearance οf e workmanship, yea, and the loftniness that reacheth eaven, and the costly cedars of Lebanon that are hced above; the mention of which even the divine acle doth not pass over in silence, sayinn: ‘The ees of the Lord shall be glad, even the cedars οf banon which he hath planted.’

“Why need I now speak more partieularly οf the perfect widom and art with which the building hath been ordered, and the surpassing beauty οf every part, when the witness of the eyes leaveth no plaee for the instruction that cometh through the ears? [*](1 Or, as we should say, “basilica.”)

Νevertheless, having thus completed the temple he adοrned it with thrones, very lorty, to do honour unto the Ρresidents, and likewise with benches arranged in order throughout in a convenient manner; and after all these he hath plaeed in the midst the holy of holies even the altar, and again surrounded this part also, that the multitude might not trea thereon, with a fence of wooden lattice-work, delicately wrought with the crartsman’s utmost skill, so as to present a marvellous Spectaele to those that see it.

“Νor did even the pavement, as one might suppose, escape his care. This also, for example, he hath made exceeding brilliant with every kind of fair marble; and then, finally, passing on outside the temple as well, he hath construeted chambers and building on either side, very large, the which he hath skilfully μnited together to the sides ofthe royal house,1 and These with the openings into the central building. These also were wrought by our most peaceful solomon, who builded the temple of God, for those who still have need of cleansing and sprinkling with water and the Ηoly spirit, insomuch that the aforesaid said prophecy 2 is no longer a word only, but is become a fact. For the latter glory of this house hath become, and in truth even now is, greater than the fonner.

“For it was meet and right that, as her shepherd and Lord had suffered οnce for all death on her behalf, and after the Ρassion had changed the foul body with which Ηe had clothed Ηinself for her sake into His splendid and glOrious body, and brought the very flesh that was dissoleved from corruption into incor- [*](2 § 36.)

ruption, she also likewise should enjoy the fruits of e dispensations of the sariour. For verily having eived from Him a promise of much better things even these, she longeth to receive as her due, tingly and for the ages that are to come, the much eater glory of the new birth in the resurrection of an incorruptible body, in the company of the choir the angels of light in the kingdoms οf God beyond e heavens, with Christ Jesus Himself her supreme nefector and Saviour. But meanwhile in the ent time she who hath long been a widow and eserted hath been robed by the grace of God with ese blossoms, and is become in truth as a lily, as ith the prophecy; and haring received again the arb οf a bride and put on the gariand of beauty, she taught by Isaiah to dance, as it were, presenting er thank-ofering to the glory of God the King in words of praise. Let us listen to her as she saith: Let my soul rejoice in the Lord; for he hath clothed me vith the gannent of salvation and the cloke οf ladness, he hath put a chaplet upon me as a brideoom, and hath adomed me mth adomment as a ride. And as the earth that maketh her flower to ow, and as the garden causeth the things that are wn in it to spring forth; so the Lord, the Lord, ill cause righteeousness and rejoicing to spring forth efore all the nations.’

“With these words, then, she danceth. But with hat words the Bridegroom also, even the heavenly ord, Jesus Christ Ηimself, answereth her, hear the rd as Ηe saith: ‘Fear not for that thou hast been ut to shame; neither dread for that thou hast en put to reproach: for thou shalt forget thy everything shame, and the reproach of thy widowhood

It thou remember no more . . . Not as a wife aken and rriaInt-hearted hath the Lord called thee, r as a wife hated from her youth, saith thy God. or a little time I forsook thee; and with great mercy will have mercy on thee. In a little wrath I hid my face from thee, and with everlasting mercy I will ve mercy οn thee, saith the Lord who delivered Awake, awake, . . . thou who hast dmnk e hand of the Lord the cup of his fury; for the cup staggering, the bowl of fury, thou hast drunk and it. Αnd there was none to comfort thee ong all thy sons whom thou hast brought forth; there was none to take thee by the hand. . . . hold I have taken out οf thine hand the cup of gering, the bowl of my fury; and thou shalt no re it again: and I will put it into the hands them that did thee wrong and of them that umbled thee. . . . Αwake, awake, put on strength, . . put οn thy glory. . . . shake off the dust and ise sit thce down . . . loose the band from thy ck. Lift up thine eyes round about and behold y children gathered together Behold they were thered together and came to thee. Αs I live, ith the Lord, thou shalt clothe thee with them all with an ornament, and gird thyself with them as ith the ornament of a bride. For thy desolate and estroyed and ruined places shall now be too strait reason οf them that inhabit thee, and they that wallow thee up shall be far away from thee. For sons whom thou hast lost shall say in thy ears, the place is too strait for me : give place to me that Ι ay dwell.’ Αnd thou shalt say in thine heart, th hegorten me these ? I am children and a idow, but as for these, who hath brought me them
up? I was left alone, but these, where had I them?’

“These things Isaiah prophesied, these things had οf οld been recorded concerning us in sacred books; but it was neeessary that somehow we should come to learn their truthfulness at some time by facts. Moreover, since the Brdegroom, even the Word, thus addresseth Ηis Bride, the sacred and Ηοly church, fittingly did this paranymph 1 streteh out your hands in the common prayers of you all, and awake and raise up her who was desolate, who lay like a corpse, οf whom men despaired, by the will of God the universal King and the manifestation οf the power οf Jesus Christ; and having raised he restored her to be such as he learnt from the record of the sacred oracles.

“Α mightly wonder truly is this, and surpassing all amazement, especially in the eyes of such as take heed only to the appearance of outward things. But more wonderful than wonders are the archetypes, the rational prototypes of these things, and their divine models, 2 I mean the renewal οf the God-given, spirtual edince in our souls. This edifice the Son of God Himself created in Ηis own image, and everywhere and in all things hath bestowed upon it the divine likeness, an incorruptible nature, an essence incorporeal, spiritual, a stranger to all earthly matter and endowed with intelligence of its οwn; once for all at the first Ηe fonned it into being from that which was not, and hath made it a holy bride and an allsacred temple for Himself and the Father. Αnd this [*](church is more wonderful is the restoration of the soul, insamuch as the spriitual, is the archetype or prototype of the material. )

also Ηe Himself clearly showeth, when Ηe thus confesseth: ‘I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.’ Such then, is the perfect and purified soul, thus begotten from the beginning so as to bear the image οf the heavenly Word.

“But when through the envy and jealousy οf demon which loveth evil she became of her own free choice a lover of that which is sensual and evil, and the Deity departed from her, leaving her bereft οf a protector, she fell an easy capture and prey to the snares of those who long had enried her; and, laid low by the engines and machines of her invisible enemies and spiritual foes, she fell a tremendous fall, so that not even one stone upon another of her virtue remained standing in her; nay, she lay her full length upon the ground, absolutely dead, altogether deprived of her inborn thoughts concerning God. Yea, verily, as she lay fallen there, she who was made in the image of God, it was not that boar οut of the wood which we can see that ravaged her, but some death-dealing demon and spiritual wild beasts, who also have inflamed her with their passions as with fiery darts of their οwn wickedness, and have set the truly divine sanctuary of God on fire, and have profaned the dwelling-place of Ηis name to the ground; then they buried the hapless οne in a great heap οf earth, and brought her to a state bereft of all hope of salvation.

“But her Guardian, the Word, the divinely-bright and saving one, when she had paid the just penalty for her sins, once more again rertored her, hearkening to the living-kindness οf an all-gracious Father.

First, then, choosing unto Himself the souls of the upreme Emperors, by means of these men most dearly beloved οf God Ηe cleansed the whole world of all wicked and baneful persons and of the cruel God-hating tyrants themselves. Αnd then men that were Ηis disciples, who all their life long had been consecrated to Ηim, yet secretly concealed, as in a storm οf evils, by Ηis sheltering care, these Ηe brought out openly and honoured worthily with the great gifts οf His Father's bounty. Αnd by their means Ηe once more purified and cleansed with pickaxes and mattocks, namely, the penetrating teachings οf Ηis instruction, those souls which a short time before had been befouled and overlaid with every sort οf matter and rubbish contained in impious decrees; and when Ηe had made bright and clear the place of the understanding of all of you, Ηe then for the future consigned it to this all-wise and God-beloved ruler. Ηe, discerning and as he is in an else, distinguisheth also and discerneth the understanding of the souls committed to his charge ; and from the first day, so to speak, even unto now he hath never ceased to build, and among you all to fit into its place, at one time the radiant gold, at another the approved and purified silver and the precious and costly stones; so as οnce more to fulfil in his deeds to you-ward the sacred and mystic prophecy, in which it hath been said: ‘Βehold I prepare for thee thy stone οf carbuncle, and thy foundations of sapphire, and thy battlements οf jasper, and thy gates οf crystals, and thy wall of choice stones, and all thy sons taught of God, and in great peace thy children: and in righteousness shalt thou be built.'


“Building verily in righteousness, 1 he duly divided the whole people according to their several abilities; with some he fenced the outer enclosure and this alone, surrounding it with a wall of unerring faith (and this was the great multitude of the people who were unable to support a mightier structure); to others he entrusted the entrances to the house, setting them to haunt the doors and guide the steps of those entering, wherefore they have not unnaturally been reckoned as gateways of the temple; he supported with the first outer pillars that are about the quadrangular courtyard, bringing them to their first acquaintance with the letter of the four Gospels. Others he joineth closely to the royal house on either side, still indeed under instruction and in the stage of progressing and advancing, yet not far off nor greatly separated from the faithful who possess the divine vision of that which is innermost. Taking from the number of these last the pure souls that have been cleansed like gold by the divine washing, he then supporteth some of them with pillars much greater than the outermost, from the innermost mystic teachings of the Scriptures, while others he illumineth with apertures towards the light. The whole temple he adorneth with a single, mighty gateway, even the praise of the οne and only God, the universal King; and on either side of the Father's sovereign power he provideth the secondary beams of the light of Christ and the Ηoly Spirit. Αs to the rest, throughout the whole house he showeth in an abundant and much varied manner the clearness and splendour of the truth that is in each one, in that everywhere and from every source he hath included the living and firmly set and

well-wrought stones of men's souls. Thus he builded the great and royal house composed of all, bright and full of light both within and without; for not alone soul and mind, but even their body had been made glorious with the many-blossomed adornment οf chastity and sobriety.

“Νow there are also in this fane thrones and countless benches and seats, as manv as are the souls on which the gifts of the divine Spirit find their restingplace; such as long ago appeared to the sacred Apostles and those that were with them, to whom there were manifested tongues parting asunder, like as of fire ; and it sat upon each one of them. But while in the ruler of all, as is right, the entire Christ hath taken Ηis seat, in those who have the second place after him [this bounty] is proportioned to each one's capacity, by gifts of the power of Christ and of the Ηoly Ghost. Αnd the souls of some might be the seats even of angels, of of those to whom the instruction and guarding of each several person hath been committed. But as to the reverend, mighty and unique altar, what might it be save the spotless holy of holies of the common priest of all ? 1 Standing beside it on the right hand the great High Ρriest of the universe, even Jesus, the only-begotten of receiveth with joyful countenance and uptunrned hands the sweet-smelling incense from all, and bloodless and immaterial sacrifices offered in prayer, and sendeth them on their way to the heavenly Father and God of the universe; Whom He Himself first adoreth and alone rendereth to His Father the honour that is due; after which Ηe also beseecheth [*](typifies the spiritual sanctuary (i.e. the soul) of Jesus Christ.)

Him to remain favourable and propitious toward us all for ever.

“Such is the great temple which the Word, the great Creator of the universe, hath builded throughout the whole world beneath the sun, forming again this spiritual image upon earth of those vaults beyond the vaults of heaven; so that by the whole creation and by the rational, living creatures upon earth His Father might be honoured and revered. But as for the region above the heavens and the models there of things on this earth, and the Jerusalem that is above, as it is called, and the mount Ζion the heavenly mount, and the supramundane city of the living God, in which innumerable hosts of angels in general assembly and the church οf the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven honour their Maker and the Sonereign of the universe, proclaiming Ηis praises in unutterable words of which we cannot conceive: these no mortal man can worthily hymn, for in truth eye saw not, and ear heard not, nor did there enter into the heart of man those same things which God prepared for them that love Ηim. Of these things now in part deemed worthy, let us all together, men with women and children, small and great, with one spirit and one soul, never cease to praise and acclaim Him who is the Αuthor of so great blessings to us ; who is very merciful to all our iniquities, who healeth all our diseases, who redeemeth our life from destruction, who crowneth us with mercy and pities, who satisfieth our desire with good things; for Ηe hath not dealt with us after our sins, nor rewarded us after

our iniquities; for as far as the east is from the west, far hath Ηe removed οur iniquities from us. Like a father pitieth his sons, so the Lord pitied them t fear Him.

‘‘Let us rekindle the memories οf these things both now and for all time hereafter; yea, and let us keep our minds night and day, through every and, one might say, in every breath, the Αuthor the present assembly, and this happy and most lorious day, even the Ruler of the assembly Himself; let us cherish and revere Him with the whole wer οf our soul; and now let us rise and beseech in loud accents, as befitteth our earnest desire, at at He would shelter and preserve us to the end in is fold, and award us that eternal peace, unbroken undisturbed, which cometh cometh from Him, in Christ esus our Saviour, through whom to Him be glory for er and ever. ”

V. But come, let us now quote also the translations made from the Latin of the imperial ordinances of nstantine and Licinus.

Copy of Imperial Ordinances translated from the Latin tongue.1

In our watchfulness in days gone by that freedom f worship should not be denied, but that each οne rding to his mind and purpose should have uthority given him to care for divine things in the [*](the people οf his pronince. It is probable that at Milan, in 313 (ix. 11.9), Constantine and Licinius drew up a norm οf ctions to governors which might be copied, with perhaps e variations in detail, and sent to the various proninces. ne redaction οf that norm was translated by Eusebius, other was transcribed by Lactantius (De Mortibus Perm 48).)

way that pleased him best, we had given orders that th to the Christians [and to all others liberty should allowed]1 to keep to the faith of their οwn sect d worship. But inasmuch as many and various conitions2 seemed clearly to have been added in that reipt, in which such rights were conceded to the same rsons, it may be that perchanee some of them were ortly afterwards repelled from such observance.

“ When I Constantine Αugustus and I Lincinius gustus had come under happy auspices to Milan, d discussed all matters that concemed the public vantage and good, among the other things that eemed to be of benefit to the many 3—or rather, first and foremost — we resolved to make sueh decrees should secure respect and reverenee for the Deity Deity ; namely, to grant both to the Christians and to all free choice of following whatever form οf worship ey pleased, to the intent that all the dirine and eavenly powers that be might be favourable to us d all those living under our authority. Therefore with sound and most upright reasoning we resolved this 4 counsel : that authority be refused to no οne homsoever to follow and choose the observanee or rm of worship that Christians use, and that authority e granted to each one to give his mind to that form f worship which he deems sritable to himself, to e intent that the Dininity 5 . . . may in all things ord us his wonted care and generosity. It was omitting to send a rescript that this is οur pleasure, in er that when those conditions had altogether been [*](3 Lat. pluribus hominibus ; the Gk. has ἐν πολλοῖς ἅπασιν luribus omnibus). 4 Omitting ἡμετέραν, with the Latin. 5 The Latin adds “ cuius religioni liberis mentibus obsequiur.” )

moved, which were contained in our former letters nt to thy Devotedness, concerning the Christians, οse things also which seemed to be wholly unfortute and foreign to our clemency might be removed, d that now each one of those who were possessed the same purpose—namely, to observe istians’ form οf worship—should ry thing, freely and simply, without any hindrance. ich things we have resolved, to signify in the est manner to thy Carefulness, to the intent that u mayest know that we have granted to these e Christians free and unrestricted authority to erve their own form of worship. Αnd when thou rceivest that this has been granted unrestrictedly them by us, thy Devotedness will understand at authority has been given to others also, who h to follow their own observance and form of rship—a thing clearly suited to the our times—so that each one may have choose and observe whatever form he pleases. is has been done by us, to the intent that we would not seem to have detraeted in any way from y rith 2 or form of worship.

“Αnd this, moreover, with special regard to the istians, we resolve: That their places, at which was their former wont to assemble, coneerning ich also in the former letter dispatched to thy evotedness a definite ordinance 3 had been formerly d down, if any should appear to have bought them ther from our treasury οr from any οther source — at these they should restore to these same ristians without payment οr any demand for compensation. [*](3 Lat. certa forma. Eusebius has τύπος ἕτερος, as if he had cetera in the Latin. )

Setting aside all negligence and doubtfulness; and if any chanee to have received them by girt, that they should restore them them all speed to these same Christians: prorided that if either those who have purchased these same place or those who have received them by gift request aught of our generosity, let them approach the prefect of the district,1 to the intent that through our Kindness thought may be taken for them also. Αll which things must be handed over to the corporation of the Christians by thy zealous care immediately and without delay.

“Αnd inasmuch as these same Christians had not only those places at whieh it was their wont to assemble, but also are known to have had Other, belonging not to indiniduals among them, but to the lawful property of their corporation, that is, of the Christians, all these, under the provisions of the law set forth above, thou wilt give orders to be restored without any question whatsoever to these same Christians, that is, to their corporation and assembly; provided always, of course, a aforesaid, that those persons who restoie the same without compensation, as we have mentioned above, may look for indemnification, as far as they are concerned, from our generosity.

“In all these things thou Shouldest use all the diligence in thy power for the above-mentioned corporation of the Christians, that this our command may be fulfilled with all speed, so that in this also, through our kindness, thought may be taken for the common and publie peace. For by this method, as we have also said before, the divine [*](1 Omitting the gloss δικάζοντι. )

care for us, which we have already experienced in many matters, will remain stedfast1 . . . continually. Αnd that the form which this our enactment and generosity takes may be brought to the knowledge οf all, it is fitting that this which we have written be set forth by thy order and published everywhere, and brought to the knowledge of all, to the intent that the enactment which embodies this our gnerosity may escape the notice οf no οne.’’

Copy of another Imperial Ordinance which he also made, indicating that the bounty had been granted to the Catholic Church alone.

‘‘Greeting, Anulinus, our most honoured Sir. It is the custom of οur benevolence, that we will that whatsoever appertains by right to another should not only not suffer harm, but even be restored, most honoured Anulinus. Wherefore we will that, when thou receivest this lerter, if aught of those things that belonged to the catholic Church 2 of the Christians in any city, or even in other plaees, be now in the possession either of citizens or οf any οthers: these thou shouldest cause to be restored forthwith to these same churches, inasmueh as it has been our determination that those things which these same churches possessed formerly should be restored to them as their right. Since, therefore, thy Devotedness perceives that the order of this our command is most explicit, do thy diligence that [*](2 Eusebius (see heading) took this to mean the Catholic Church as opposed to the Donatist schismatics; but this is very imrobable. The phrase refcrs to the Church in Africa as it was before the persecution and before the schism. )

all things, whether gardens or buildings or whatsover belonged to these same churches by right, restored to them with all speed; so that we may learn that thou hast yielded the most careful obedience to this our order. Fare thee well, Anulinus, οur most honoured and esteemed Sir.”

Copy of an Imperial Letter, in which he commands holding of a Synod of bishops at Rome οn behalf of the union and concord of the churches.

“Constantine Augustus to Miltiades bishop of the , and to Mark. Inasmuch as documents of such a nature have been sent to me in numbers by Anulinus, the right honourable proconsul of Africa, m which it appears that Caecilian,1 the bishop of the ity οf the Carthaginians, is called to aecount οn many charges by some of his colleagues in Africa; d inasmuch as it seems to me to be a very serious tter that in those prorinces, which Dinine Pronience has chosen to entrust to my Denotedness, and where there is a great number of people, the ultitude should be found pursring the worse course f action, splitting up, as it were, and the bishops at ariance mnong themselves: it seemed good to me t Caecilian himself, with ten bishops, who seem call him to account, and such ten others as he ay deem necessary to his suit, should set sail for me, that there a hearing may be granted him in the presence of yourselves, and moreover οf Reticius d Maternus and Marinus also, your colleagues aditor, i.e. had surrendered up the Scriptures to the pagan [*](thorities. Hence they held that Caecilian's consecration as invalid; and by appointing a bishop of their own in his began what is known as the Donatist schism. )

(whom I have ordered to hasten to Rome for this purpose), in such a manner as ye may perceive to be in accordance vith the most saered law. Nevertheless, that ye may have the fullest knowledge of all these same matters, I have subjoined to my letter copies οf the documents that were sent to me by Anulinus, and have dispatehed them to your afore said colleagues. Which when your Firmness reads, he will gauge by what method the most eareful investigation can be made of the above-mentioned suit, and a just deeision arrived at; since it does not escape the notice of your Carefulness that the respect which I pay to the lawful Catholic Church is so great, that it is my wish that ye should leave no schism whatsoever or division in any plaee. Μay the divinity of the great God preserve 1 you Safely for many years, most honoured Sirs.2’’

Copy of an Imperial Letter, in which he gives orders for the holding of a second Synod for the purpose of removing all dinision among the bishops.

“Constantine Αugustus to Chrestus bishop of the Syracusans. Already on a former occasion, when some in a base and perverse manner began to create divisions with regard to the worship of the holy and heavenly Ρower and the Catholic religion, in my desire to cut short such dissensions among them, I had given orders to the effect that certain bishops should be sent from Gaul, nay further, that the opposing parties, who were contending stubbornly [*]( 2 Gk. “Sir’’; but the Lat. correctly gives the plural. The Letter, hovever. seems to have been addressed principally to Miltiades : nothing is known of Mark, who is associated with him in the opening sentence. )

and persistently together, should be sunnnoned from Africa; that so, in the presence also of the bishop of Rome, this question which appeared to have been raised might through their comming receive a right solution by means οf a careful examination in every particular. But since, as it happens, some, forgetful both of their own salvation and the reverence they owe to their most holy religion, even now do not cease to perpetuate their private enmities, being unwilling to conform to the judgement already passed, affirming that after all it was a few persons who gave their opinions and decisions, or that they were in a hurry psss judgement very speedily and sharply without having first accurately examined all those matters that ought to have been investigated; and since, as a result of all this, it has come to pass that even those very persons, who ought to be οf οne mind in brotherly concord, are separate from each other in a disgraceful, nay rather in an abominable, fashion, and give to those men whose souls are strangers to this most holy religion to scoff—wherefore it became incumbent upon me to provide that that which ought to have ceased by voluntary agreement, after the judgement akeady passed, may even now, if possible, be ended by the presence οf many persons. Inasmuch, therefore, as we have commanded that very many bishops from various and numberless places should assemble at the city of Arles by the Kalends of Αugust, we have thought it d to write to thee aho, that thou shouldest procure m the right honourable Latronianus, the “corrector1” οf Sicily, a public vehicle, and joining to thy [*](1 In the fourth century this was the title of governors of certain provinces. )
company two οthers οf those of the second rank,1 whomsoever thou thyself mayest decide to choose, and, moreover, taking with you three servants who shall be able to artend upon you οn the way, do thou be present at the above-mentioned place by that same day; so that both by thy Firmness and by the unanimous wisdom of the others assembled, this quarrel also (which hitherto, by reason of certain disgraceful contentions, has maintained a miserable existence), when all has been heard that will be said those who are now at variance among themselves, whom likewise we have commanded to be present, may, if οnIy tardily, give place to a due state οf religion and faith and brotherly coneord. May the ighty God preserve thec in good health for many years.”

VI. Copy of an Imperial Letter in which grants of money are made to the churches.

“ Constantine Augustus to Caecilian bishop of Carthage. Forasmuch as it has been our pleasure in all provinces, namely the African, the Numidian and the Mauretanian, that somewhat be contributed for expenses to certrin specified ministers of the lawful and most holy Catholic religion, I have dispatched a letter to Ursus, the most distinguished finance minister οf Africa, and have notified to him that he be careful to pay οver to thy Firmness three thousand folles.2 Do thou therefore, when thou shalt secure delivery of the aforesaid sum of money, give orders that this money be distributed among all the above-mentioned persons in accordance with the schedule [*](2 The follis was originally a bag of samll coins, but after-wards came to denote a coin itseIf, the double denarius.)

sent to thee by Hosius. But if, after all, thou shalt find that there is aught lacking for the fulfilment of this my purpose in respect of them all, thou shouldest ask without doubting whatsoever thou findest to be necessary from Heraclides our procurator fiscal. For indeed when he was here I gave him orders that if thy Firmness should ask any money from him, he should be careful to pay it over without any scruple. Αnd since I have learnt that certain persons of unstable mind are desirous of turning aside the laity of the most holy and Catholic Church by some vile method of seduction, know that I have given such commands to Anulinus, the proconsul, and moreover to Patricius, the Vicar of the Prefects,1 when they were here, that they should give due attention in all other matters and especially in this, and not suffer such an occurrence to be overlooked; therefore if thou observest any such men continuing in this madness, do not thou hesitate to go to the above-mentioned judges and bring this matter before them, so that (as I commanded them when they were here) they may turn these people from their error. May the divinity οf the great God preserve thee for many years.”

VII. Copy of an Imperial Letter, in which he gives orders that presidents of the chursches be released from all public offices.

‘‘Greeting, Anulinus, our most honoured Sir. Since from many facts it appears that the setting at [*](had under his control a still larger administrative area. Patricius as Vicar οf Africa was in the jurisdiction οf the Prefect οf Italy. His title vicarius praefectorum (pl.) is a relic of more ancient days, when the Prefects were regarded as associated together in office. )

naught of divine worship, by which the highest reverence for the most holy and heavenly [Power] is preserved, has brought great dangers upon public affairs, and that its lawful restoration and preservation have bestowed the greatest good fortune on the Roman name and singular prosperity on all the affairs of mankind (for it is the Divine Providence which bestows these blessings): it has seemed good that those men who, with due holiness and constant observance of this law, bestow their services on the performance of divine worship, should receive the rewards of their own labours, most honoured Anulinus. Wherefore it is my wish that those persons who within the province committed to thee, in the Catholic Church over which Caecilian presides, bestow their service on this holy worship—those whom they accustomed to call clerics—should onee for aIl be kept absolutely free from all the public offices, that they be not drawn away by any error or sacrilegious fault from the worship which they owe to the Divinity, but rather without any hindrance serve to the utmost their own law. For when they render supreme service to the Deity, it seems that they confer incalculable benefit on the affairs of the State. Fare thee well, Anulinus, our most honoured and esteemed Sir.’

VIII. Such then were the gifts that the divine and heavenly grace of our Saviour bestowed upon us by Ηis appearing, and such was the abundance of good things that the peace which came to us procured for all mankind. Αnd thus Our happy state was celebrated with rejoicings and festive assemblies. Nevertheless

theless the envy that hates the good, even the demon who loves the evil, could not endure the sight οf hat he beheld; as indeed that which had happened the above-mentioned tyrants 1 was not ven for Licinius, to bring him to sound reason. e who had been deemed worthy οf the princite in a state οf prosperity, of second rank after e great Emperor Constantine, of a connexion by marriage and the most exalted kinship with him, ed from the following of good men and zealaffected the evil manners and wickedness the impious tyrants; and he preferred to follow e judgement of those whose end he had seen with his very eyes, rather than continue on terms friendship and love with his superior. Filled, fact, with envy of the common benefactor, he aged an impious and most terrible war against him, either giving respect to the laws of nature nor bewing a thought on sworn treaties or ties of blood or eements. For Constantine, all-gracious Emperor t he was furnished him with the tokens of genuine will, did not grudge him kinship with himself, and did not refuse him the enjoyment of an illustrious union in the person of his sister. Nay further, he eemed him worthy to partake of his ancertral obility and his imperial blood and origin, and bestowed on him, as a brother-in-law and the right to a share in the supreme government 2: for οf his bounty he gave him the ruling and administration οf no inferior part of the peoples under the Ṛoṃan ay. But Licinius pursued an exactly opposite line of conduct: he was daily contriving all kinds of
devices against his superior, and inventing all manner of plans to reward his benefactor with evil. Αt first, indeed, he attempted to conceal the intrigue, and feigned friendliness, hoping that frequent recourse to guile and deceit would most easily secure his expectationS. But God proved to be Constantine's Friend and Protector and Guardian, who brought to light the plots that were devised secretly and in darkness, and confounded them. such power is there in the great weapon of godliness to ward off the enemy and to preserve its own in safety. Fenced verily with this, our Emperor, most dear to God, escaped the plots of this ill-famed master of intrigue. Αnd he, when he saw that his covert design as by no means going according to his wish (for God disclosed every guile and wickeness to the Emperor whom Ηe loved), since he was no longer able to conceal himself, raised an οpen warfare. Αnd, to be sure, in his decision to make war at close quarteb upon Constantine, he was already hastening to battle also against the God of the universe, whom, as he knew, Constantine worshipped; and so he designed an attack, quietly and silently at first upon his godly subjects, who had never at any time done any harm at all to his rule. Αnd this he did, because his innate wickeness had perforee brought upon him terrible blindness. Thus he neither kept before his eyes the memory of those who had persecuted Christians before him, nor of those whom he himself destroyed and punished for the evil deeds they had pursued. But he turned aside from the path of sound reason, and becoming altogether mad, decided to make war on God Himself, as the Protector of Constantine, instead of on him who was being protected.


First, he drove away every Christian from his palace; thus by his own aet depriving himself, wretched man, of the prayeis to God on his behalf, which after the eustom of their fathers they are taught to make for all men. Then he gave orders that the soldiers in cities were to be singled out and deprived of honourable rank, unless they chose to sacrifce to demons.

And, moreover, these were but small matters when judged by comparison with graver measures. What need is there to mention singly and successively the things done by this hater of God: how, to wit, this most lawless οf men invented lawless laws? In fact, with regard to those who were suffering under imprisonment, he laid down a law that no one should treat them humanely by distributing food, or have pity on those who were perishing of hunger in bonds ; and that no one should be kindly at all, or do any kindly action, even When they were moved by mere natural feeling to sympathize with their neighbours. Αnd of his laws this one at least was quite openly shameless and the harshert οf all, in its putting aside of every civilized, natural feeling, by which also it was enacted as a punishment that those who showed pity should suffer the same as those whom they pitied, and that those who humanely ministered should endure the same punishment as those who were undergoing it, and be consigned to bonds and imprisonment. such were the ordinances of Lincinius. Why should one recount his innovations with regard to marriage, οr his revolutionary changes in respect of those who were departing this life, wherein he dared to annul the aneient laws of the Romans well and wisely laid down, and in their stead brought in certain that were

reckoning of an evil conscience—but had been that we did everything and supplicated God on behalf of the Emperor whom Ηe loved. Hence he hastened to vent his wrath on us. Αnd in truth the sycophants among the governors, persuaded that they were doing what pleased the impious man, plied some οf the bishops with penalties suitable for malefactors, and those who had done no wrong were led away and punished, without a pretext, like murderers. Αnd some endured at that time a more novel form of death: their bodies were cut with a sword into many pieces, and after this cruel and most fearful sight they were cast into the depths of the sea as food for fishes. Thereupon the men of God began again to flee, and οnce more the fields, οnce more the deserts, glens and mountains received the servants of Christ. Αnd when the impious man was thus suceessful in these measures also, he then conceived the idea of stirring up anew the persecution against all. Ηe had power to accomplish his purpose, and there was nothing to hinder him carrying it into effect, had not God, the Champion of the souls that are His own, foreseeing with all speed what would come to pass, caused to shine forth all at once, as it were οut of deep darkness and most murky night, a great luminary and sariour of them all, leading thither with a lofty arm his servant Constantine. IX. To him, then, as the worthy fruit οf piety did God vouchsafe from heaven above the trophies of victory over the wieked men; as for the guilty one, Ηe laid him low, with all his counscellors and friends, prone beneath the feet οf Constantine.

For when Licinius had carried his madness to the

urtennost, the Εmperor, the friend οf God, reckoning that he was no longer to be endured, summoned his sound powers of reason, and tempering the stern qualities of justice with humanity determined to succour those Who were being evil intreated under the tyrant's power; and hastened, by putting a few spoilers out of the way, to reseue the greater part of the human race. For hitherto, when he employed humanity alone and showed mercy to him who was undeserving of sympathy, there was no improvement in Licinius: he did not give over his wickedness, but rather increased his mad fury against his subject peoples; while as for those who were ill-treated, no hope of salvation was left for them, ground down as they were by a terrible wild beast. Wherefore, mingling a hatred of evil with a love of goodness, the defender of the good went forth, with that most humane Εmperor, his son Crispus, stretching out the right hand of salvation to all who were perishing. Then, inasmuch as they had God the universal King and son of God, the Saviour of all, as their Ouide and Αlly, the father and son both together divided their battle-array against the haters of God on all sides and easily Won the victory; 1 for everything in the encounter was made smooth for them by God according to His purpose. Tea verily, all at once and in less time than it takes to say it, those Who the other day were breathing death and threatening were no more, nor was even so much as their name remembered; their pictures and honours received a welldeserved disgrace; and the things that Licinius had seen with his own eyes happen to the impious tyrants [*](September 18 οr 20, 324. Shortly afterwards, Constantine had him put to death.)
of days gone by, these he himself also likewise suffered; for neither did he receive correction nor did he learn wisdom from the strokes that fell upon his neighbours, but pursued the same path of iniquity as they did, and justly reeled over the same precipice.

Thus was licinius cast down prostrate. But Constantine the most mighty Victor, resplendent with every virtue that godliness bestows, together with his son Crispus, an Emperor most dear to God and in all respects like unto his father, recovered the Εast that belonged to them, and formed the Roman Εmpire, as in the days of old, into a single united whole, bringing under their peaceful rule all of it, from the rising sun round about in the two directions, north as well as south, even to the uttermost limits of the declining day. So then, there was taken away from men all fear of those who formerly oppressed them; they celebrated brilliant festivals; all things were filled with light, and men, formerly downcast, looked at each other with smiling countenanees and beaming eyes; with daneing and hymns in city and country alike they gave honour first of all to God the universal King, for this they had been instrueted to do, and, then to the pious Emperor with his sons beloved of God; old ills were forgotten and oblivion cast on every deed of impiety; present good things were enjoyed, with the further hope of those which were yet for to come. Αnd, in short, there ẁ̀ere promulgated in every plaee ordinances of the victorious Emperor full of love for humanity, and las that betokened munificence and true piety. Thus verily, when all tyranny had been purged away, the kingdom that belonged to them was preserved stedfast and undisputed for Constantine and his sons alone;