Magna Moralia

Aristotle

Aristotle, Magna Moralia, Susemihl, Teubner, 1883

ἀλλʼ ἆρά γε ἡ εὐτυχία ἐστὶν ὡς ἐπιμέλειά τις θεῶν; ἢ τοῦτʼ οὐκ ἂν δόξειεν; τὸν γὰρ θεὸν ἀξιοῦμεν κύριον ὄντα τῶν τοιού- των τοῖς ἀξίοις ἀπονέμειν καὶ τἀγαθὰ καὶ τὰ κακά, ἡ δὲ τύχη καὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς τύχης ὡς ἀληθῶς ὡς ἂν τύχῃ γίνε- ται. εἰ δέ γε τῷ θεῷ τὸ τοιοῦτον ἀπονέμομεν, φαῦλον αὐτὸν [*](1206b, 30 —1207b, 19 ═ E. E. 1246b, 37—1248b, 7, cf. Ramsauer p. 18.) [*](35. τί Π2P2 || 37. ἀποβλέψας KbAld. || 38. ἀεὶ post 39. ἢ tri. Susem. (cf. 1207a 3 et inprimis E. E. 1247a, 31 sq.), secl. Rieckher (fors. recte), v. quae adnotabo ad v. 39 || οὗ] οὐκ pr. Kb (crx. rc.) || 39. 〈ἢ〉 ὡς? Susem. || ὡς — ὡσαύτως] 〈ἢ ἀεὶ ἢ〉 ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ [ἢ] ὡσαύτως Bonitzius, prb. Rieckher, fors. recte, lacunnae signum ante ὡς posuit etiam Bu., ὡσαύτως ἢ ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ vel ἢ ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ [ἢ] ὡσαύτως Spengelius ἢ] καὶ corr. Mb, ἠ pr. Kb, eras. corr. Kb 1207a, 4. ἡ] οὗ Scaliger 5. καὶ om. Π1 Bk.Bu. || 6. θεῶν KbAld. Va., θεοῦ Π2P2B? (fors. recte).)

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κριτὴν ποιήσομεν ἢ οὐ δίκαιον· τοῦτο δʼ οὐ προσῆκόνἐστι [τῷ] θεῷ.

ἀλλὰ μὴν ἔξω γε τούτων εἰς οὐδὲν ἄλλο τὴν τύχην ἄν τις τάξειεν, ὥστε δῆλον ὅτι τούτων ἄν τι εἴη. νοῦς μὲν δὴ καὶ λόγος καὶ ἐπιστήμη παντελῶς ἀλλότριόν τι ἔοικεν εἶναι. ἀλλὰ μὴν οὐδʼ ἡ ἐπιμέλεια καὶ ἡ εὔνοια παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ δόξειεν ἂν εἶναι εὐτυχία διὰ τὸ καὶ ἐν τοῖς φαύλοις ἐγγίγνε- σθαι·

τὸν δὲ θεὸν τῶν φαύλων οὐκ εἰκὸς ἐπιμελεῖσθαι. λοιπὸν τοίνυν καὶ οἰκειότατον τῆς εὐτυχίας ἐστὶν ἡ φύσις. ἔστιν δʼ ἡ εὐτυχία καὶ ἡ τύχη ἐν τοῖς μὴ ἐφʼ ἡμῖν οὖσιν, μηδʼ ὧν αὐτοὶ κύριοί ἐσμεν καὶ δυνατοὶ πρᾶξαι. διὸ τὸν δίκαιον, δίκαιος, οὐθεὶς λέγει εὐτυχῆ οὐδὲ τὸν ἀνδρεῖον οὐδʼ ὅλως τῶν κατʼ ἀρετὴν οὐδένα· ἐφʼ ἡμῖν γάρ ἐστι ταῦτα καὶ ἔχειν καὶ μὴ ἔχειν. ἀλλʼ ἤδη ἐπὶ τοῖς τοιούτοις οἰκειότερον τὴν εὐτυ- χίαν ἐροῦμεν· τὸν γὰρ εὐγενῆ εὐτυχῆ λέγομεν, καὶ ὅλως ᾧ τὰ τοιαῦτα τῶν ἀγαθῶν ὑπάρχει, ὧν μὴ αὐτὸς κύριος ἐστίν.

ἀλλʼ ὅμως οὐδʼ ἐνταῦθα κυρίως ἂν ἡ εὐτυχία λέγοιτο. ἔστιν δὲ πολλαχῶς ὁ εὐτυχὴς λεγόμενος· καὶ γὰρ ᾧ παρὰ τὸν λογισμὸν τὸν αὐτοῦ συνέβη τι ἀγαθὸν πρᾶξαι, εὐτυχῆ φαμέν, καὶ ᾧ κατὰ λόγον ζημίαν ἦν λαβεῖν, τὸν τοιοῦτον κερδάναντα εὐτυχῆ φαμέν.

ἔστιν οὖν ἡ εὐτυχία ἐν τῷ ἀγαθόν τι ὑπάρξαι παρὰ λόγον καὶ ἐν τῷ κακὸν μὴ λαβεῖν εὔλο- γον. ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον καὶ οἰκειότερον ἡ εὐτυχία ἂν δόξειεν εἶναι ἐν τῷ ἀγαθὸν λαβεῖν· τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἀγαθὸν λαβεῖν καθʼ αὐτὸ δόξειεν ἂν εὐτύχημα εἶναι, τὸ δὲ κακὸν μὴ λα- βεῖν κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς εὐτύχημα.