De Syria dea

Lucian of Samosata

Lucian of Samosata, The Goddesse of Surrye, Lucian vol. 4, Harmon, Harvard, 1961

1 Ἔστιν ἐν Συρίῃ πόλις οὐ πολλὸν ἀπὸ τού Εὐφρήτεω ποταμοῦ, καλέεται δὲ Ἱρή, καὶ ἔστιν ἱρὴ τῆς Ἥρης τῆς Ἀσσυρίης. δοκέει δέ μοι, τόδε τὸ οὔνομα οὐκ ἄμα τῇ πόλει οἰκεομένῃ ἐγένετο, ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν ἀρχαῖον ἄλλο ἦν, μετὰ δὲ σφίσι τῶν ἱρῶν μεγάλων γιγνομένων ἐς τόδε ἡ ἐπωνυμίη ἀπίκετο. περὶ ταύτης ὦν τῆς πόλιος ἔρχομαι ἐρέων ὁκόσα ἐν αὐτῇ ἐστιν· ἐρέω δὲ καὶ νομους τοῖσιν ἐς τὰ ἱρὰ χρέωνται, καὶ πανηγύριας τὰς ἄγουσιν καὶ θυσίας τὰς ἐπιτελέουσιν. ἐρέω δὲ καὶ ὁκόσα καὶ περὶ τῶν τὸ ίρὸν εἱσαμένων μυθολογἐπθσο, καὶ τὸν νηὸν ὅκως ἐγένετο. γράφω δὲ Ἀσσύριος ἐών, καὶ τῶν ἀπηγέομαι τὰ μὲν αὐτοψίῃ μαθών, τὰ δὲ παρὰ τῶν ἱρέων ἐδάην, ὁκόσα ἐόντα ἐμεῦ πρεσβύτερα ἐγὼ ἱστορέω.

2 Πρῶτοι μὲν ὦν ἀνθρώπων τῶν ἡμεῖς ἴδμεν Αἰγυπτιοι λέγονται θεῶν τε ἐννοίην λαβεῖν καὶ [*](Available in photographs, ΓΝ.) [*](1 Hierapolis, or better, in accordance with the coins, Hieropolis. It is N.W of Aleppo, on the main road into Mesopotamia, 15 Roman miles from the crossing of the Euphrates, and by road about 116 Roman milas from Lucian's birthplace, Samosata. Its Syrian name was Mabog, (properly Manbog, i.e. “spring.” according to Baudissin, Studien, ii, 159), in Greek, Bambyce. It was dubbed Hieropolis in the time of Soleucus Nicator (Ael. N. H. 12, 2), but the old name persisted (Manbij; le Strunge, Palestiane under the Moslems,)

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ἱρὰ εἵκάσθαι καὶ τεμένεα καὶ πανηγύριας ἀποδεῖξαι. πρῶτοι δὲ καὶ οὐνόματα ἱρὰ ἔγνωσαν καὶ λόγους ἱροὺς ἕλεξαν. μετὰ δὲ οὐ πολλοστῷ χρόνῳ παξῤ Αἰγυπτίων λόγον Ἀσσύριοι ἐς θεοὺς ἤκουσαν, καὶ ἱρὰ καὶ νηοὺς ἤγειραν, ἐν τοῖς καὶ ἀγάλματα ἔθεντο καὶ ξόανα ἐστήσαντο.

3 τὸ δὲ παλαιὸν καὶ παῤ Αἰγυπτίοισιν ἀξόανοι νηοὶ ἔσαν. καὶ ἔστιν ἱρὰ καὶ ἐν Συρίῃ οὐ παρὰ πολὺ τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοισιν ἰσοχρονέοντα, τῶν ἐγὼ πλεῖστα ὄπωπα, τό γε τοῦ Ἡρακλέος τὸ ἐν Γύρῳ, οὐ τούτου τοῦ Ἡρακλέος τὸν Ἕλληνες ἀείδουσιν, ἀλλὰ τὸν ἐγὼ λέγω πολλὸν ἀρχαιότερος καὶ Τύριος ἥρως ἐστίν.

4 Ἔνι δὲ καὶ ἄλλο ἱρὸν ἐν Φοινίκη μέγα, τὸ Σιδόνιοι ἔχουσιν. ὡς μὲν αὐτοὶ λέγουσιν, Ἀστάρτης ἐστίν· Ἀστάρτην δʼ ἐγὼ δοκέω Σεληναίην ἔμμεναι. ὡς δέ μοί τις τῶν ἱρέων ἀπηγέετο, Εὐρώπης ἐστὶν τῆς Κάδμου ἀδελφεῆς· ταύτην δὲ ἐοῦσαν Ἀγήνορος τοῦ βασιλέως θυγατέρα, ἐπειδή τε ἀφανὴς ἐγεγόνεεν, οἱ Φοίνικες τῷ νηῷ ἐτιμήσαντο καὶ λόγον ἱρὸν ἐπʼ αὐτῇ ἔλεξαν, ὅτι ἐοῦσαν καλὴν Ζεὺς ἐπόθεεν καὶ τὸ εἶδος εἰς ταῦρον ἀμειψάμενος ἥρπασεν καί μιν ἐς Κρήτην φέρων ἀπίκετο. τάδε μὲν καὶ τῶν ἄλλων Φοινίκων ἤκουον, καὶ [*](1 In Astrology, Lucian similarly credits the Egyptians with priority over the Chaldaeans in the study of the stars. In both cases his view, surprising in a Syrian, was the common one of his time, to be found, for instance, in Diodorus (1,9,6).) [*](2 The dod was Melkart. Herodotus was told by the priests there that the cult was established when the city)

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τὸ νόμισμα τῷ Σιδόνιοι χρέωνται τὴν Εὐρώπην ἐφεζομένην ἔχει τῷ ταύρῳ τῷ Διί· τὸν δὲ νηὸν οὐκ ὁμολογέουσιν Εὐρώπης ἔμμεναι.

5 Ἔχουσι δὲ καὶ ἄλλο Φοίνικες ἱρόν, οὐκ Ἀσσύριον ἀλλʼ Αἰγύπτιον, τὸ ἐξ Ἡλίου πόλιος ἐς τὴν Φοινίκην ἀπίκετο. ἐγὼ μέν μιν οὐκ ὄπωπα, μέγα δὲ καὶ τόδε καὶ ἀρχαῖόν ἐστιν.

6 Εἶδον δὲ καὶ ἐν Βύβλῳ μέγα ἱρὸν Ἀφροδίτης Βυβλίης, ἐν τῷ καὶ τὰ ὄργια ἐς Ἄδωνιν ἐπιτελέουσιν· ἐδάην δὲ καὶ τὰ ὄργια. λέγουσι γὰρ δὴ ὦν τὸ ἔργον τὸ ἐς Ἄδωνιν ὑπὸ τοῦ συὸς ἐν τῇ χώρῃ τῇ σφετέρῃ γενέσθαι, καὶ μνήμην τοῦ πάθεος τύπτονταί τε ἑκάστου ἔτεος καὶ θρηνέουσι καὶ τὰ ὄργια ἐπιτελέουσι καὶ σφίσι μεγάλα πένθεα ἀνὰ τὴν χώρην ἵσταται. ἐπεὰν δὲ ἀποτύψαωνταί τε καὶ ἀποκλαύσωνται, πρῶτα μὲν καταγίζουσι τῷ Ἀδώνιδι ὅκως ἐόντι νέκυι, μετὰ δὲ τῇ ἑτέρη ἡμέρῃ ζώειν τέ μιν μυθολογέουσι καὶ ἐς τὸν ἠέρα πέμπουσι καὶ τὰς κεφαλὰς ξύρονται [*](1 The coins are described in Head, Historia Nummorum 2nd ed., pp. 797 sq. The temple itself contained, in later days at least, a painting of the Europa episode (Achilles Tatius 1, 1). The story was also localized at Tyre, where the house of Agenor and the bower of Europe were shown (Arrian, Anab. 2, 24, 2; Nonnus, Dionys. 40, 353 sqq.) and where in the eighth century (Malalas, p. 31) the people still mourned the abduction in a feast called the κακὴ ὀψινή. The name Europe is considered Greek; whether this particular myth is Cretan or Phoenician in origin the evidence does not seem anfficient to determine.) [*](2 This cult was at Heliopolis (Baalbek). The god, who appears to have been originally Hadad but to have undergone syncrisis with the sun-god and with the Syrian “Apollo,” was worshipped far and wide as Jupiter Heliopolitanus.)

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ὅκως Αἰγύπτιοι ἀποθανόντος Ἄπιος. γυναικῶν δὲ ὁκόσαι οὐκ ἐθέλουσι ξύρεσθαι, τοιήνδε ζημίην ἐκτελέουσιν· ἐν μιῇ ἡμέρῃ ἐπὶ πρησει τῆς ὥρης ἵστανται· ἡ δὲ ἀγορὴ μούνοισι ξείνοισι παρακέαται, καὶ ὁ μισθὸς ἐς τὴν Ἀφροδίτην θυσίη γίγνεται.

7 Εἰσὶ δὲ ἔνιοι Βυβλίων οἳ λέγουσι παρὰ σφίσι τεθάφθαι τὸν Ὄσιριν τὸν Ἀἰγύπτιον, καὶ τὰ πένθεα καὶ τὰ ὄργια οὐκ ἐς τὸν Ἄδωνιν ἀλλʼ ἐς τὸν Ὄσιριν πάντα πρήσσεσθαι. ἐρέω δὲ καὶ ὁκόθεν καὶ τάδε πιστὰ δοκέουσι. κεφαλὴ ἑκάστου ἔτεος ἐξ Αἰγύπτου ἐς τὴν Βύβλον ἀπικνέεται πλώουσα τὸν μεταξὺ πλόον ἑπτὰ ἡμερέων, καί μιν οἱ ἄνεμοι φέρουσι θείῃ ναυτιλίη· τρέπεται δὲ οὐδαμά, ἀλλʼ ἐς μούνην τὴν Βύβλον ἀπικνέεται. καὶ ἔστι τὸ σύμπαν θωῦμα. καὶ τοῦτο ἑκάστου ἔτεος γίγνεται, τὸ καὶ1 ἐμεῦ παρεόντος ἐν Βύβλῳ ἐγένετο· καὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν ἐθεησάμην Βυβλίνην.

[*](1 καὶ τοῦτο —τὸ καὶ N: not in ΓΕ. In both old MSS. the first hand left a space in which these words were entered long afterward.)[*](1 Lucian abridges his account of the rites because they were familiar. 1 see no reason to suppose that they differed essentially from the Alexandrian rites as described by Theocritus (15 end). From him we learn that Adonis comes to life for but a day, during which he is couched with the goddess in the temple. Next morning the women carry him to the sea-shore, and (cf. scholion) commit him to the waves. Lucianʼs phrase ἐς τὸν ἠέρα πέμπουσι, which has been curiously interpreted, is to my mind equivalent to ἕξω οἰσεῦμες in Theocritus and the usual ἐκκομίζονσι.)[*](2 See Frazer i, 36 sqq., and the comment of How and Wells on herodotus 1, 199. Note also the apocryphal Epistle of Jeremiah 42; and on the “hire,” Deuteronomy 23, 18.)
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8 Ἔνι δὲ καὶ ἄλλο θωῦμα ἐν τῇ χώρη τῇ Βυβλίῃ. ποταμὸς ἐκ τοῦ Λιβάνου τοῦ οὔρεος ἐς τὴν ἅλα ἐκδιδοῖ· οὔνομα τῷ ποταμῷ Ἄδωνις ἐπικέαται. ὁ δὲ ποταμὸς ἑκάστου ἔτεος αἱμάσσεται καὶ τὴν χροιὴν ὀλέσας ἐσπίπτει ἐς τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ φοινίσσει τὸ πολλὸν τοῦ πελάγεος καὶ σημαίνει τοῖς Βυβλίοις τὰ πένθεα. μυθέονται δὲ ὅτι ταύτῃσι τῇσι ἡμέρῃσιν ὁ Ἄδωνις ἀνὰ τὸν Λίβανον τιτρώσκεται, καὶ τὸ οἶμα ἐς τὸ ὕδωρ ἐρχόμενον ἀλλάσσει τὸν ποταμὸν καὶ τῷ ῥόῳ τὴν ἐπωνυμίην διδοῖ. ταῦτα μὲν οἱ πολλοὶ λέγουσιν. ἐμοὶ δέ τις ἀνὴρ Βύβλιος ἀληθέα δοκέων λέγειν ἑτέρην ἀπηγέετο τοῦ πάθεος αἰτίην. ἔλεγεν δὲ ὁδκ· “ὁ Ἄδωνις ὁ ποταμός, ὦ ξεῖνε, διὰ τοῦ Λιβάνον ἔρχεται· ὁ δὲ Λίβανος κάρτα ξανθόγεώς ἐστιν. ἄνεμοι ὦν τρηχέες ἐκείνῃσι τῇσι ἡμέρῃσι ἱστάμενοι τὴν γῆν τῷ ποταμῷ ἐπιφέρουσιν ἐοῦσαν ἐς τὰ μάλιστα μιλτώδεα, ἡ δὲ γῇ μιν αἱμώδεα τίθησιν· καὶ τοῦδε τοῦ πάθεος οὐ τὸ οἶμα, τὸ λέγουσιν, ἀλλʼ ἡ χώρη αἰτίη.” ὁ μέν μοι Βύβλιος τοσάδε ἀπηγέετο εἰ δὲ ἀτρεκέως ταῦτα ἔλεγεν, ἐμοὶ μὲν δοκέει κάρτα θείη καὶ τοῦ ἀνέμου ἡ συντυχίη.

9 Ἀνεβην δὲ καὶ ἐς τὸν Λίβανον ἐκ Βύβλου, ὁδὸν ἡμέρης, πυθόμενος αὐτόθι ἀρχαῖον ἱρὸν [*](1 The Adonis is the present Νahr Ibrahim, a short distance S. of Byblos. “I have crossed it on Easter day when it was turbid and ruddy with the rich red sandstone soil from Lebanon” (C. R. Conder, Palstine, p. 206; cf. Frazer i, 225), A similar discoloration of certain unnamed rivers and springs is implied in the tale of Philo of Byblos that Uranus)

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Ἀφροδίτης ἔμμεναι, τὸ Κινύρης εἴσατο, καὶ εἶδον τὸ ἱρόν, καὶ ἀρχαῖον ἦν.

Τάδε μέν ἐστι τὰ ἐν τῇ Συρίῃ ἀρχαῖα καὶ μεγάλα ἱρά.

10τοσούτων δὲ ἐόντων ἐμοὶ δοκέει οὐδὲν τῶν ἐν τῇ ἱρῇ πόλει μέζον ἔμμεναι οὐδὲ νηὸς ἄλλος ἁγιώτερος οὐδὲ χώρη ἄλλη ἰροτέρη. ἔνι δὲ ἐν αὐτῷ καὶ ἔργα πολυτελέα καὶ ἀρχαῖα ἀναθήματα καὶ πολλὰ θωύματα καὶ ξόανα θεοπρεπέα. καὶ θεοὶ δὲ κάρτα αὐτοῖσιν ἐμφανέες· ἱδρώει γὰρ δὴ ὦν παρὰ σφίσι τὰ ξόανα καὶ κινέεται καὶ χρησμηγορέει, καὶ βοὴ δὲ πολλάκις ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ νηῷ κλεισθέντος τοῦ ἱροῦ, καὶ πολλοὶ ἤκουσαν. ναὶ μὴν καὶ ὄλβου πέρι ἐν τοῖσιν ἐγὼ οἶδα πρῶτόν ἐστιν· πολλὰ γὰρ αὐτοῖσιν ἀπικνέεται χρήματα ἔκ τε Ἀραβίης καὶ Φοινίκων καὶ Βαβυλωνίων καὶ ἄλλα ἐκ Καππαδοκίης, τὰ δὲ καὶ Κίλικες φέρουσι, τὰ δὲ καὶ Ἀσσύριοι. εἶδον δὲ ἐγὼ καὶ τὰ ἐν τῷ νηῷ λάθρῃ ἀποκέαται, ἐσθῆτα πολλὴν καἰ ἄλλα ὁκόσα ἐς ἄργυρον ἢ ἐς χρυσὸν ἀποκέπριται. ὁρταὶ μὲν γὰρ καὶ πανηγύριες οὐδαμοῖσιν ἄλλοισιν ἀνθρώπων τοσαίδε ἀποδεδέχαται.

11 Ἱστορέοντι δέ μοι ἐτέων πέρι, ὁκόσα τῷ ἱρῷ ἐστιν, καὶ τὴν θεὸν αὐτοὶ ἥντινα δοκέουσιν, πολλοὶ λόγοι ἐλέγοντο, τῶν οἱ μὲν ἱροί, οἱ δὲ [*](1 At Aphaca, between Byblos and Baalbek, at the head of the Adonis, where Adon was buried and Baalat died of grief Down to the fifth century a bright light appearing in the sky near the temple summoned the worshippers at set times, and an artificial pond gave omens; offerings were thrown into it, which sank if the goddess was favourable or floated if she was adverse (Zosiamus i, 58; cf. Socrates 1, 18), The site is eloquently described by Frazer, i, 28, and pictured)

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ἐμφανέες, οἱ δὲ κάρτα μυθώδεες, καὶ ἄλλοι βάρβαροι, οἱ μὲν τοῖσιν Ἕλλησιν ὁμολογέοντες· τοὺς ἐγὼ πάντας μὲν ἐρέω, δέκομαι δὲ οὐδαμά.

12 Οἱ μὲν ὦν πολλοὶ Δευκαλίωνα τὸν Σκύθεα1 τὸ ἱρὸν εἵσασθαι λέγουσιν, τοῦτον Δευκαλίωνα ἐπὶ τοῦ τὸ πολλὸν ὕδωρ ἐγένετο. Δευκαλίωνος δὲ πέρι λόγον ἐν Ἕλλησιν ἤκουσα, τὸν Ἕλληνες ἐπʼ αὐτῷ λέγουσιν. ὁ δὲ μῦθος ὦδε ἔχει. Ἥδε ἡ γενεή, οἱ νῦν ἄνθρωποι, οὐ πρῶτοι ἐγένοντο, ἀλλʼ ἐκείνη μὲν ἡ γενεὴ πάντες ὤλοντο, οὗτοι δὲ γένεος τοῦ δευτέρου εἰσί, τὸ αὖτις ἐκ Δευκαλίωνος ἐς πληθὺν ἀπίκετο. ἐκείνων δὲ πέρι τῶν ἀνθρώπων τάδε μυθέονται· ὑβρισταὶ κάρτα ἐόντες ἀθέμιστα ἔργα ἔπρησσον, οὔτε γὰρ ὅρκια ἐφύλασσον οὔτε ξείνους ἐδέκοντο οὔτε ίκετέων ἠνείχοντο, ἀνθʼ ὧν σφίσιν ἡ μεγάλη συμφορὴ ἀπίκετο. αὐτίκα ἡ γῇ πολλὸν ὕδωρ ἐκδιδοῖ καὶ ὄμβροι μεγάλοι ἐγένοντο καὶ οἱ ποταμοὶ κατέβησαν μέζονες καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ἐπὶ πολλὸν ἀνέβη, ἐς ὃ πάντα ὕδωρ ἐγένοντο καὶ πάντες ὤλοντο, Δευκαλίων δὲ μοῦνος ἀνθρώπων ἐλίπετο ἐς γενεὴν δευτέρην εὐβουλίης τε καὶ τοῦ εὐσεβέος εἵνεκα. ἡ δέ οἱ σωτηρίη ἥδὲ ἐγένετο· λάρνακα μεγάλην, τὴν αὐτὸς εἶχεν, ἐς ταύτην ἐσβιβαάσας παῖδάς τε καὶ γυναῖκας ἑωυτοῦ ἐσέβη· ἐσβαίνοντι δέ οἱ ἀπίκοντο σύες καὶ ἵπποι καὶ λεόντων γένεα καὶ ὄφιες καὶ ἄλλα ὁκόσα ἐν γῇ νέμονται, πάντα [*](1 Σισύθεα Buttmann.) [*](1 Deucalion in the röle of a Scythian is odd. Hence Buttamann, rightly recognising that the tale is close akin to)

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ἐς ζεύγεα. ὁ δὲ πάντα ἐδέκετο, καί μιν οὐκ ἐσίνοντο, ἀλλά σφι μεγάλη διόθεν φιλίη ἐγένετο. καὶ ἐν μιῇ λάρνακι πάντες ἔπλευσαν ἔστε τὸ ὕδωρ ἐπεκράτεεν. τὰ μὲν Δευκαλίωνος πέρι Ελληνες ἱστορέουσι.

13 Τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου λέγεται λόγος ὑπὸ τῶν ἐν τῇ ἱρῆ πόλει μεγάλως ἄξιος θωυμάσαι, ὅτι ἐν τῇ σφετέρῃ χώρῃ χάσμα μέγα ἐγένετο καὶ τὸ σύμπαν ὕδωρ κατεδέξατο· Δευκαλίων δέ, ἐπεὶ τάδε ἐγένετο, βωμούς τε ἔθετο καὶ νηὸν ἐπὶ τῷ χάσματι Ἥρης ἅγιον ἐστήσατο. ἐγὼ δὲ καὶ τὸ χάσμα εἶδον, καὶ ἔστιν ὑπὸ τῷ νηῷ κάρτα μικρόν. εἰ μὲν ὦν πάλαι καὶ μέγα ἐὸν νῦν τοιόνδε ἐγένετο, οὐκ οἶδα· τὸ δὲ ἐγὼ εἶδον, μικρόν ἐστιν. Σῆμα δὲ τῆς ἱστορίης τόδε πρήσσουσιν. δὶς ἑκάστου ἔτεος ἐκ θαλάσσης ὕδωρ ἐς τὸν νηὸν ἀπικνέεται. φέρουσι δὲ οὐκ ἱρέες μοῦνον, ἀλλὰ πᾶσα Συρίη καὶ Ἀραβίη, καὶ πέρηθεν τοῦ Εὐφρήτεω πολλοὶ ἄνθρωποι ἐς θάλασσαν ἔρχονται καὶ πάντες ὕδωρ φέρουσιν, τὸ πρῶτα μὲν ἐν τῷ νηῷ ἐκχέουσι, μετὰ δὲ ἐς τὸ χάσμα κατέρχεται, καὶ δέκεται τὸ χάσμα μικρον ἐὸν ὕδατος χρῆμα πολλόν. τὰ δὲ ποιέοντες Δευκαλίωνα ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ τόνδε νόμον θέσθαι λέγουσι συμφορῆς τε καὶ εὐεργεσίης μνῆμα ἔμμεναι.

[*](1 In spite of Lucianʼs repeated assurance, the story is more Semitic than Greek. On the West Semitic origin of the flood-story, see Clay, where also a translation of the Babylonian tale according to Berossus may be found (p. 82 sq).)[*](2 At Gezer, not far from Jerusalem, “there is a living tradition that the waters of the flood burst forth in the neighbourhood” (Cook, p., 107, Likewise at Athens, within the enclosure of Olympian Zens, in the precinet of Olympian)
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Ὁ μὲν ὦν ἀρχαῖος αὐτοῖσι λόγος ἀμφὶ τοῦ ἱροῦ τοιόσδε ἐστίν.

14 ἄλλοι δὲ Σεμίραμιν τὴν Βαβυλωνίην, τῆς δὴ πολλὰ ἔργα ἐν τῇ Ἀσίῃ ἐστίν, ταύτην καὶ τόδε τὸ ἕδος εἵσασθαι νομίζουσιν, οὐκ Ἥρῃ δὲ εἵσασθαι ἀλλὰ μητρὶ ἑωυτῆς τῆς Δερκετὼ οὔνομα. Δερκετοῦς δὲ εἶδος ἐν Φοινίκῃ ἐθεησάμην, θέημα ξένον· ἡμισέη μὲν γυνή, τὸ δὲ ὁκόσον ἐκ μηρῶν ἐς ἄκρους πόδας ἰχθύος οὐρὴ ἀποτείνεται. ἡ δὲ ἐν τῇ ἱρῇ πόλει πᾶσα γυνή ἐστιν, πίστιες δὲ τοῦ λόγου αὐτοῖσιν οὐ κάρτα ἐμφανέες. ἰχθύας χρῆμα ἱρὸν νομίζουσιν καὶ οὔκοτε ἰχθύων ψαύουσι· καὶ ὄρνιθας [*](chthonic, and so was the water-pouring there (Cleidemus in Athenaeus 5, p. 410A). At Hieropolis the object was to quell evil spirits, according to Melito. “But touching Nebo. which is in Mabug, why should I write to you ; for lo ! all the priests which are in Mabug know that it is the image of Orpheus, a Thracian Magus. And Hadran (i.e. Hadaranes, a double of Hadad) is the image of Zaradusht, a Persian Magus, because both of these Magi practised Magism to a well which is in a wood in Mabug, in which was an unclean spirit, and it committed violence and attacked the passage of every one who was passing by in all that place in which now the fortress of Mabug is located ; and these same Magi charged Simi, the daughter of Hadad (cf. c. 33), that she should draw water from the sea, and cast it into the well, in order that the spirits should not come up,” etc. (Cureton, Spicil. Syr. 44 sq.) Early modern travellers have seen seawater poured into a brook (Baudissin, Studien, ii, p. 181), and it is perhaps significant that nowadays the Jâns are angry if water is spilled on the hearth (Baldensperger, Immovable East, p. 85). Cf. Baudissin, p. 437, 3.) [*](1 A legend of Ascalon made Semiramis the daughter of Derceto by a Syrian youth with whom Aphrodite (i.e. Astarte) made Derceto fall in love. In her grief and shame,)

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τοὺς μὲν ἄλλους σιτέονται, περιστερὴν δὲ μούνην οὐ σιτέονται, ἀλλὰ σφίσιν ἥδε ἱρή. τὰ δὲ γιγνόμενα δοκέει αὐτοῖς ποιέεσθαι Δερκετοῦς καὶ Σεμιράμιος εἵνεκα, τὸ μὲν ὅτι Δερκετὼ μορφὴν ἰχθύος ἔχει, τὸ δὲ ὅτι τὸ Σεμιράμιος τέλος ἐς περιστερὴν ἀπίκετο. ἀλλʼ ἐγὼ τὸν μὲν νηὸν ὅτι Σεμιράμιος ἔργον ἐστὶν τάχα κου δέξομαι· Δερκετοῦς δὲ τὸ ἱρὸν ἔμμεναι οὐδαμὰ πείθομαι, ἐπεὶ καὶ παῤ Αἰγυπτίων ἐνίοισιν ἰχθύας οὐ σιτέονται, καὶ τάδε οὐ Δερκετοῖ χαρίζονται.

15 Ἔστιν δὲ καὶ ἄλλος λόγος ἱρός, τὸν ἐγὼ σοφοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἤκουσα, ὅτι ἡ μὲν θεὴ Ῥέη ἐστίν, τὸ δὲ ἱρὸν Ἄττεω ποίημα. Ἄττης δὲ γένος μὲν Λυδὸς ἧν, πρῶτος δὲ τὰ ὄργια τὰ ἐς Ῥέην ἐδιδάξατο. καὶ τὰ Φρύγες καὶ Λυδοὶ καὶ Σαμόθρᾳκες ἐπιτελέουσιν, Ἄττεω πάντα ἔμαθον. ὡς γάρ μιν ἡ Ῥέη ἔτεμεν, βίου μὲν ἀνδρηίου ἀπεπαύσατο, μορφὴν δὲ θηλέην ἠμείψατο καὶ ἐσθῆτα γυναικηίην ἐνεδύσατο καὶ ἐς πᾶσαν γῆν φοιτέων ὄργιά τε ἐπετέλεεν καὶ τὰ ἔπαθεν ἀπηγέετο καὶ Ῥέην ἤειδεν. ἐν τοῖσιν καὶ ἐς Συρίην ἀπίκετο. ὡς δὲ οἱ πέρην Εὐφρήτεω ἄνθρωποι οὔτε αὐτὸν οὔτε [*](1 See cc. 45, 54, with the notes thereon.) [*](2 On the transformation of Semiramis into a dove, see Athenagoras, Legat, pro Christ. 76 (Ctesiae Fragmenta ed. Müller, p. 17) ; Diodorus 2, 20, 2. Diodorus (2, 4, 6; cf. Hesychius) says that the name Semiramis is derived from the word for dove in the Syrian dialect. At all events the similarity of the Assyrian word summatu (dove) helps to account for her introduction into these stories (Lehmann-Haupt, Roscher's Lexikon, s. v. Semiramis, p. 694).) [*](3 Lucian's scepticism is unjustified. Pliny (5, 81) and Strabo (16, p. 785) were better informed. Atargatis is the Greek version of ‘Atar-‘ata; Derceto is the Greek version)

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ὄργια ἐδέκοντο, ἐν τῷδε τῷ χώρῳ τὸ ἱρὸν ἐποιήσατο. σημήια δέ· ἡ θεὸς τὰ πολλὰ ἐς Ῥέην ἐπικνέεται.1 λέοντες γάρ μιν φέρουσι καὶ τύμπανον ἔχει καὶ ἐπὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ πυργοφορέει, ὁκοίην Ῥέην Λυδοὶ ποιέουσιν. ἔλεγεν δὲ καὶ Γάλλων πέρι, οἵ εἰσιν ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ, ὅτι Γάλλοι Ἥρῃ μὲν οὐδαμά, Ῥέῃ δὲ τέμνονται καὶ Ἄττεα μιμέονται.

Τὰ δέ μοι εὐπρεπέα μὲν δοκέει ἔμμεναι, ἀληθέα δὲ οὔ· ἐπεὶ καὶ τῆς τομῆς ἄλλην αἰτίην ἤκουσα πολλὸν πιστοτέρην.

16 ἁνδάνει δέ μοι ἂ λέγουσιν τοῦ ἱροῦ πέρι τοῖς Ἕλλησι τὰ πολλὰ ὁμολογέοντες, τὴν μὲν θεὸν Ἥρην δοκέοντες, τὸ δʼ ἔργον Διονύσου τοῦ Σεμέλης ποίημα· καὶ γὰρ δὴ Διόνυσος ἐς Συρίην ἀπίκετο κείνην ὁδὸν τὴν ἦλθεν ἐς Αἰθιοπίην. καὶ ἔστι πολλὰ ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ Διονύσου ποιητέω σήματα, ἐν τοῖσι καὶ ἐσθῆτες βάρβαροι καὶ λίθοι Ἰνδοὶ καὶ ἐλεφάντων κέρεα, τὰ Διόνυσος ἐξ Αἰθιόπων ἤνεικεν, καὶ φαλλοὶ δὲ ἑστᾶσι ἐν τοῖσι προπυλαίοισι δύο κάρτα μεγάλοι, ἐπὶ τῶν ἐπίγραμμα τοιόνδε ἐπιγέγραπται, “τούσδε φαλλοὺς Διόνυσος Ἥρῃ μητρυιῇ ἀνέθηκα.” [*](1 ἐπικνέεται Lehmann: ἐπικέεται ΓΕ: ἀπικέεται Ν.)

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τὸ ἐμοὶ μέν νυν καὶ τόδε1 ἀρκέει, ἐρέω δὲ καὶ ἄλλʼ ὅ τι ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ νηῷ Διονύσου ὄργιον. φαλλοὺς Ἕλληνες Διονύσῳ ἐγείρουσιν, ἐπὶ τῶν καὶ τοιόνδε τι φέρουσιν, ἄνδρας μικροὺς ἐκ ξύλου πεποιημένους, μεγάλα αἰδοῖα ἔχοντας· καλέεται δὲ τάδε νευρόσπαστα. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τόδε ἐν τῷ ἱρῷ· ἐν δεξιῇ τοῦ νηοῦ κάθηται μικρὸς ἀνὴρ χάλκεος ἔχων αἰδοῖον μέγα.

17 Τοσάδε μὲν2 ἀμφὶ τῶν οἰκιστέων τοῦ ἱροῦ μυθολογέουσιν. ἤδη δὲ ἐρέω καὶ τοῦ νηοῦ πέρι θέσιός τε ὅκως ἐγένετο καὶ ὅστις μιν ἐποιήσατο. λέγουσι τὸν νηὸν τὸν νῦν ἐόντα μὴ ἔμμεναι τὸν τὴν ἀρχὴν γεγενημένον, ἀλλʼ ἐκεῖνον μὲν κατενεχθῆναι χρόνῳ ὕστερον, τὸν δὲ νῦν ἐόντα Στρατονίκης ἔμμεναι ποίημα, γυναικὸς τοῦ Ἀσσυρίων βασιλέως.

Δοκέει δέ μοι ἡ Στρατονίκη ἐκείνη ἔμμεναι, τῆς ὁ πρόγονος ἠρήσατο, τὸν ἤλεγξεν τοῦ ἰητροῦ ἐπινοίη· ὡς γάρ μιν ἡ συμφορὴ κατέλαβεν, ἀμηχανέων [*](1 τόδε A.M.H.: τάδε MSS.) [*](2 μὲν Fritzsche: μιν MSS.) [*](3 μὴ—γεγενημένον: first Aldine; ; not in MSS. ΓΕ show lacunae ; the space in Γ is about 31 letters.) [*](1 Phallic pillars, farther described below, cc. 28–29. The inscription is much too pointed to be genuine ; it is a hoax like that in the True Story 1, 7 (vol. i, p. 255). Pillars were an ordinary feature of Semitic “high places,” both of wood (asherim) and of stone (masseboth); see Frazer, Folklore, iii, sqq. In the case of the asherim I know of  no direct evidence that they were phallic, but the masseboth, many of which stilI survive, are sometimes clearly of that nature (Cook, 14, 28 ; see also le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems, p. 294, for a curious survival of this significance). The pillars at Hieropolis were made of wood, since cleats were)

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τῷ κακῷ αἰσχρῷ δοκέοντι κατʼ ἡσυχίην ἐνόσεεν, ἔκειτο δὲ ἀλγέων οὐδέν, καί οἱ ἥ τε χροιὴ πάμπαν ἐτρέπετο καὶ τὸ σῶμα διʼ ἡμέρης ἐμαραίνετο. ὁ δὲ ἰητρὸς ὡς εἶδέ μιν ἐς οὐδὲν ἐμφανὲς ἀρρωστέοντα, ἔγνω τὴν νοῦσον ἔρωτα ἔμμεναι. ἔρωτος δὲ ἀφανέος πολλὰ σημήια, ὀφθαλμοί τε ἀσθενέες καὶ φωνὴ καὶ χροιὴ καὶ δάκρυα. μαθὼν δὲ ταῦτα ἐποίεε· χειρὶ μὲν τῇ δεξιῇ εἶχε τοῦ νεηνίσκου τὴν καρδίην, ἐκάλεε δὲ τοὺς ἀνὰ τὴν οἰκίην πάντας· ὁ δὲ τῶν μὲν ἄλλων ἐσιόντων πάντων ἐν ἠρεμίῃ μεγάλῃ ἧν, ὡς δὲ ἡ μητρυιὴ ἀπίκετο, τήν τε χροιὴν ἠλλάξατο καὶ ἱδρώειν ἄρξατο καὶ τρόμῳ εἴχετο καὶ ἡ καρδίη ἀνεπάλλετο. τὰ δὲ γιγνόμενα ἐμφανέα τῷ ἰητρῷ τὸν ἔρωτα ἐποίεεν, καί μιν ὧδε ἰήσατο.

18 καλέσας τοῦ νεηνίσκου τὸν πατέρα κάρτα ὀρρωδέοντα, “Ἥδε ἡ νοῦσος,” “ἔφη, “ ἣν ὁ παῖς ὅδε ἀρρωστέει, οὐ νοῦσός ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ ἀδικίη· ὅδε γάρ τοι ἀλγέει μὲν οὐδέν, ἔρως δέ μιν καὶ φρενοβλαβείη ἔχει. ἐπιθυμέει δὲ τῶν οὐδαμὰ τεύξεται, φιλέων γυναῖκα ἐμήν, τὴν ἐγὼ οὔτι μετήσομαι.” ὁ μὲν ὦν τοιάδε σοφίῃ ἐψεύδετο. ὁ δὲ αὐτίκα ἐλίσσετο, “Πρός τε σοφίης καὶ ἰητρικῆς, μή μοι παῖδα ὀλέσῃς· οὐ γὰρ ἐθέλων ταύτῃ συμφορῇ ἔσχετο, ἀλλὰ οἱ ἡ νοῦσος ἀεκουσίη. τῷ σὺ μηδαμὰ ζηλοτυπέων πένθος ἐγεῖραι πάσῃ βασιληίῃ μηδὲ ἰητρὸς ἐὼν φόνον προξενέειν1 ἰητρικῇ.” ὁ μὲν ὧδε ἀγνὼς ἐὼν ἐδέετο. ὁ δέ μιν αὖτις ἀμείβετο, “Ἀνόσια σπεύδεις γάμον ἐμὸν ἀπαιρεόμενος ἠδὲ ἰητρὸν ἄνδρα βιώμενος. σὺ δὲ κῶς ἂν αὐτὸς ἔπρηξας, εἴ τοι σὴν γυναῖκα ἐπόθεεν, ἐμεῦ τάδε [*](1 προξενέειν Koene, Schaefer: προξενέεις N: lacuna in ΓΕ.)

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δεόμενος ;” ὁ δὲ πρὸς τάδε ἔλεγεν ὡς οὐδʼ αὐτὸς ἄν κοτε γυναικὸς ἐφείσατο οὐδὲ παιδὶ σωτηρίης ἐφθόνεεν, εἰ καί τι μητρυιῆς ἐπεθύμεεν· οὐ γὰρ ὁμοίην συμφορὴν ἔμμεναι γαμετὴν ἢ παῖδα ὀλέσαι. ὡς δὲ τάδε ὁ ἰητρὸς ἤκουσεν, “Τί τοι,” ἔφη, “ἐμὲ λίσσεαι ; καὶ γάρ τοι σὴν γυναῖκα ποθέει· τὰ δὲ ἐγὼ ἔλεγον πάντα ἔην ψεύδεα.” πείθεται μὲν τουτέοισι, καὶ τῷ μὲν παιδὶ λείπει καὶ γυναῖκα καὶ βασιληίην, αὐτὸς δὲ ἐς τὴν Βαβυλωνίην χώρην ἀπίκετο καὶ πόλιν ἐπὶ τῷ Εὐφρήτῃ ἐπώνυμον ἑωυτοῦ ἐποιήσατο, ἔνθα οἱ καὶ ἡ τελευτὴ ἐγένετο. ὧδε μὲν ὁ ἰητρὸς ἔρωτα ἔγνω τε καὶ ἰήσατο.

19 Ἥδε δὴ ὦν ἡ Στρατονίκη ἔτι τῷ προτέρῳ ἀνδρὶ συνοικέουσα ὄναρ τοιόνδε ἐθεήσατο, ὥς μιν ἡ Ἥρη ἐκέλευεν ἐγεῖραί οἱ τὸν ἐν τῇ ἱρῇ πόλει νηόν, εἰ δὲ ἀπειθέοι, πολλά οἱ καὶ κακὰ ἀπείλεεν. ἡ δὲ τὰ μὲν πρῶτα οὐδεμίαν ὥρην ἐποιέετο· μετὰ δέ, ὥς μιν μεγάλη νοῦσος ἔλαβεν, τῷ τε ἀνδρὶ τὴν ὄψιν ἀπηγήσατο καὶ τὴν Ἥρην ἱλάσκετο καὶ στήσειν τὸν νηὸν ὑπεδέξατο. καὶ αὐτίκα ὑγιέα γενομένην ὁ ἀνὴρ ἐς τὴν ἰρὴν πόλιν ἔπεμπε, σὺν δὲ οἱ καὶ χρήματα καὶ στρατιὴν πολλήν, τοὺς μὲν οἰκοδομέειν, τοὺς δὲ καὶ τοῦ ἀσφαλέος εἵνεκα. καλέσας δέ τινα τῶν ἑωυτοῦ φίλων, νεηνίην [*](1 Compare the famous story in Herodotus (3, 119) of the wife of Intaphrenes, who preferred brother to husband and sons.) [*](2 The known facts are that Seleucus made Antiochus joint-ruler in 293 B.C.; that the marriage of Stratonice to Antiochus may have taken place at that time, but the date is not known ; and that in 281, on becoming master of the whole realm of Alexander through the defeat of Lysimachus, he planned to entrust, and perhaps actually did entrust, all)

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κάρτα καλόν, τῷ οὔνομα ἧν Κομβάβος, “Ἐγώ τοι,” ἔφη, “ὦ Κομβάβε, ἐσθλὸν ἐόντα φιλέω τε μάλιστα φίλων ἐμῶν καὶ πάμπαν ἐπαινέω σοφίης τε καὶ εὐνοίης τῆς ἐς ἡμέας, ἣν δὴ ἐπεδέξαο. νῦν δέ μοι χρειὼ μεγάλης πίστιος, τῷ σε θέλω γυναικὶ ἐμῇ ἑσπόμενον ἔργον τέ μοι ἐπιτελέσαι καὶ ἱρὰ τελέσαι καὶ στρατιῆς ἐπικρατέειν· σοὶ δὲ ἀπικομένῳ ἐξ ἡμέων τιμὴ μεγάλη ἔσσεται.”

Πρὸς τάδε ὁ Κομβάβος αὐτίκα λίσσετο πολλὰ λιπαρέων μή μιν ἐκπέμπειν μηδὲ πιστεύειν οἱ τὰ πολλὸν ἑωυτοῦ μέζονα χρήματα καὶ γυναῖκα καὶ ἔργον ἱρόν. τὰ δὲ ὀρρώδεεν μή κοτέ οἱ ζηλοτυπίη χρόνῳ ὑστέρῳ ἐς τὴν Στρατονίκην γένοιτο, τὴν μοῦνος ἀπάξειν ἔμελλεν.

20 ὡς δὲ οὐδαμὰ ἐπείθετο, ὁ δὲ ἱκεσίης δευτέρης ἅπτεται δοῦναί οἱ χρόνον ἑπτὰ ἡμερέων, μετὰ δὲ ἀποστεῖλαί μιν τελέσαντά τι τῶν μάλιστα ἐδέετο. τυχὼν δὲ ῥηιδίως, ἐς τὸν ἑωυτοῦ οἶκον ἀπικνέεται καὶ πεσὼν χαμᾶζε τοιάδε ὠδύρετο· “Ὢ δείλαιος, τί μοι ταύτης τῆς πίστιος ; τί δέ μοι ὁδοῦ, τῆς τέλος ἤδη δέρκομαι; νέος μὲν ἐγὼ καὶ γυναικὶ καλῇ ἕψομαι. τὸ δέ μοι μεγάλη συμφορὴ ἔσσεται, εἰ μὴ ἔγωγε πᾶσαν [*](1 The name Kombabos, which does not occur elsewhere in Greek, has been identified as that of the opponent of Gilgamesh in the Gilgamesh-Epic, Hu(m)-ba-ba (Schrader-Zimmern, p. 570, and note 2). Clay has shown (pp. 49–53) that this name is not Elamite, but Amorited or West Semitic; he holds that it was borne by a historical personage who lived in a cedar district of the West and humiliated Babylonia at the time of Gilgamesh, about 4000 B.C. However that may be, Kombabos is Humbaba, and in this story, which is the temple-legend, the name of Kombabos is the)

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αἰτίην κακοῦ ἀποθήσομαι· τῷ με χρῆν μέγα ἔργον ἀποτελέσαι, τό μοι πάντα φόβον ἰήσεται.” Τάδε εἰπὼν ἀτελέα ἑωυτὸν ἐποίεεν, καὶ ταμὼν τὰ αἰδοῖα ἐς ἀγγήιον μικρὸν κατέθετο σμύρνῃ τε ἅμα καὶ μέλιτι καὶ ἄλλοισι θυώμασι· καὶ ἔπειτα σφρηγῖδι τὴν ἐφόρεε σημηνάμενος τὸ τρῶμα ἰῆτο. μετὰ δέ, ὥς μιν ὁδοιπορέειν ἐδόκεεν, ἀπικόμενος ἐς τὸν βασιλέα πολλῶν παρεόντων διδοῖ τε ἅμα τὸ ἀγγήιον καὶ λέγει ὧδε· “Ὦ δέσποτα, τόδε μοι μέγα κειμήλιον ἐν τοῖσι οἰκείοισι ἀπεκέατο, τὸ ἐγὼ κάρτα ἐπόθεον· νῦν δὲ ἐπεὶ μεγάλην ὁδὸν ἔρχομαι, παρὰ σοὶ τόδε θήσομαι. σὺ δέ μοι ἀσφαλέως ἔχειν· τόδε γάρ μοι χρυσοῦ βέλτερον, τόδε μοι ψυχῆς ἐμῆς ἀντάξιον. εὖτ᾿ ἂν δὲ ἀπίκωμαι, σόον αὖτις ἀποίσομαι.” ὁ δὲ δεξάμενος ἑτέρῃ σφρηγῖδι ἐσημαίνετο καὶ τοῖσι ταμίῃσι φρουρέειν ἐνετείλατο.