A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology

Smith, William

A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology. William Smith, LLD, ed. 1890

(Ἀντίοχος), king of SYRIA, surnamed SOTER (Σωτήρ), was the son of Seleucus Nicator and a Persian lady, Apama. The marriage of his father with Apama was one of those marriages which Alexander celebrated at Susa in B. C. 325, when he gave Persian wives to his generals. This would fix the birth of Antiochus about B. C. 324. He was present with his father at the battle of Ipsus in B. C. 301, which secured for Seleucus the government of Asia. It is related of Antiochus, that he fell sick through love of Stratonice, the young wife of his father, and the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and that when his father learnt the cause of his illness through his physician Erasistratus, he resigned Stratonice to him, and gave him the government of Upper Asia with the title of king. On the murder of his father in Macedonia in B. C. 280, Antiochus succeeded to the whole of his dominions, and prosecuted his claims to the throne of Macedonia against Antigonus Gonatas, but eventually allowed the latter to retain possession of Macedonia on his marrying Phila, the daughter of Seleucus and Stratonice. The rest of Antiochus' reign was chiefly occupied in wars with the Gauls, who had invaded Asia Minor. By the help of his elephants he gained a victory over the Gauls, and received in consequence the surname of Soter (Σωτήρ). He was afterwards defeated by Eumenes near Sardis, and was subsequently killed in a second battle with the Gauls (B. C. 261), after a reign of nineteen years. By his wife Stratonice Antiochus had three children : Antiochus Theos, who succeeded him; Apama, married to Magas; and Stratonice, married to Demetrius II. of Macedonia. (Appian, App. Syr. 59_65; Justin, 17.2; Plut. Demetr. 38, 39; Strab. xiii. p.623; Paus. 1.7; Julian, Misopog. p. 348a. b. ; Lucian, Zeuxis, 8; Aelian, Ael. NA 6.44; Plin. Nat. 8.42.) Apollo is represented on the reverse of the annexed coin. (Eckhel. iii. p. 215.)