the Younger (Ἀνδρονίκος Παλαιόλογος), emperor of CONSTANTINOPLE, was born in 1296, and succeeded his grandfather in 1328, as has been related in the preceding article. He was unsuccessful in his wars with the Turks; he lost the battle of Philocrene against sultan Urkhan and his brother Alá-ed-dín, who had just organized the body of the Jannisaries, by whom Thrace was ravaged as far as the Haemus. Equally unsuccessful against the Catalans in Greece, he was more fortunate against the Bulgarians, the Tartars of Kiptschak, and the Servians.
He was twice married, first to Agnes or Irene, the daughter of Henry, duke of Brunswick, and after her death to Anna, countess of Savoy, by whom he had two sons, John and Emanuel. At his death, in 1341, he left them under the guardianship of John Cantacuzenus, who soon began to reign in his own name. (Nicephorus Gregoras, lib. ix.--xi.; Cantacuzenus, 1.100.58, &c., 2.100.1-40; Phranzes, 1.100.10-13; comp. Pachymeres, Andronicus Palaeologus.)[W.P]